He critically observes the human behavior and personality. He figures out the authoritative and dominating factors that shape the person 's personality, thinking, cognition and motivational processes. According to Mulhollem,"Bandura simply observing the others and incorporating this concept into his theory". Social cognitive theory is a crust of the psychosocial, cognitive and behavior processing. This theory clearly asserts the humanistic elements such as individuality, contemplative self-awareness and cogitative reaction.
Michael White and David Epston observed and believed that the way people tell their stories reflects their emotions and motivations. A therapist must lead with a learner’s stance meaning from a place where the therapist learns from the client. With older clients encouraging the narrative and learning from their experience helps to identify values and histories of successful coping. Narrative therapy uses anti-hierarchal dialogues. The therapist facilitates the client as “expert in the room”.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning process where the strength of a client’s behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment. Dr. Foxx’s work with Harry is an example of operant conditioning because of the techniques he used with different levels of consequences, for example time out and physical reinforcements. With that being said Dr. Foxx used Harrys restraints as both positive and negative reinforcements. In addition, some of the examples Dr. Foxx used to work with Harrys problem behavior
3.1) Theories of Behaviour Management Behaviour management is a tool, a system, generates learning environment to encourage positive behaviour and minimise the opportunity for negative conduct to occur. It is like modifying and change learner's action in a positive manner where the primary focus lies on maintaining order. Many theorists presented their views in their research work on the understanding of the nature of the behaviour BILL ROGER is an education consultant and author present his work on behaviour management, discipline, effective teaching, and stress management etc. and also lectures widely covers the topic to both the learner and the teacher for the challenges facing in leadership in educational premises. Bill Roger recommended
Observing Jake through the cognitive approach will focus on how he learned the behavior. The negative actions may be learned, but can also be unlearned as well. For treating Jake 's anxiety using this approach he should tackle activities that will allow his anxiety to arise to show Jake that his feared results are unlikely to happen. Psychologists view the approach with how people 's behaviors are learned and supported. The humanistic approach focuses on the whole person.
As A professional counselor the approaches are client center and is used in humanistic therapy. The founder Roger used it to motivate clients in the therapeutic process. Roger used three qualities that a good counselor should consider for clients in sessions. First unconditional positive regard is to meet the client where they are. Second genuineness is to share open honest communication and be vulnerable to the client, so the client can do the same.
According to Daryl self perception is “A person’s view of him or herself and of any mental or physical attribute that makes up the person’s self. The perception theory of how self knowledge unfolds.” It assumes that internal states are inferences resulting from observation of one’s behaviour (Tuntufye., 1993: 267). Understanding how people get to know themselves is important because self knowledge is a foundation which people use in the process of forming values, preferences and attitudes. Clear self knowledge helps people make decisions in daily life, whereas the absence of well defined self knowledge can render an individual unable to make these decisions. The self perception theory consists of two basic claims.
In terms of social and nonsocial reinforcement, nonsocial reinforcement refers particularly to the series of events which takes place in socialization process and other learning factors as well as the traits and attitudes of an individual which will lead them to a delinquent life. In contrast, social reinforcement is the actual initiation of the anticipated behavior through the influence of material and valuable rewards that is present in the society. The final concept of social learning theory may motivate individuals to commit violations or deviant acts in the same direction of definitions. Differential reinforcement discussed the influence of rewards and punishments in developing and learning deviant behaviors (Akers
There are strengths of psychoanalysis. Firstly, reconstruction of personality. Therapists act as a guideline to assist or help clients to enable them to rebuild their organized pattern of behavioral characteristics. Therapists enable clients to explore wide range of perspectives and understandings when they encounter life problems which they find it difficult to
This created the idea of pragmatism, where it is believed that reality must be experienced and that we must interact with our environment so we can continue to be able to adapt and learn. An example of this can be seen in observation 4 (Appendix 1), where Emily is experiencing emotional and social changes and is having to learn and adapt through a hands on experience by engaging in new social interactions whilst facing her feelings and learning from them. Erikson (1968) believed that throughout the lifespan, people deal with different ‘crisis’ that need resolving. If the crisis is resolved successfully than a life-stage virtue is achieved, but if not, the person can suffer emotional distress (flood 2014). His nine stages, known as psychosocial stages, show at different ages throughout life which we develop life-stage virtues.