When the Spanish arrived in the Philippines, the diverse population of inhabitants were either animistic or Muslim. With the exception of Manila, the periphery of the islands had little economic value and returned relatively poor profits. Therefore, "[Spanish monarchs] resolved early that religious conversion of Filipinos was to be the only justification for holding the islands." Due to conflicts with the Dominican and Jesuit orders that did the missionary work in the Philippines, the Spanish appointed and trained Indios, those who were of fully Filipino descent, and Mestizos, those of half-Iberian, half-Filipino descent, to be priests. These Mestizos and Indios were on the lower end of the racial hierarchy of the Philippines, so the fact that they were able to gain prominent roles in the clergy show a very high level of commitment to proselytization by the Spanish.
“In 1534 to many following years, Portuguese priests were active into converting the people there into Catholicism” (Christianity in Indonesia). These Portuguese priests were very active into converting people into Christianity that by the end of the 16th century, they successfully turned 20% of the Moluccans into Catholics. The Portuguese left a very lasting impact because today there is approximately around 23 million Catholics in Indonesia. Through the Portuguese, Indonesia is able to have citizens who believe and know the love that God has given unto every single
As the only majority Christian country in Asia, Filipino Roman Catholics today makes up approximately 80 percent of the population. The Spaniards who came to colonize the islands during the 16th century brought Catholicism to the Philippines. (]OCANO) Like many other Southeast Asian communities, most of the Philippines communities practiced animism in pre-colonial times. British anthropologist, Edward Burnett Tylor (1974), said in his book Primitive culture, that such a belief system is a natural development that dates back to prehistoric times. Tylor argues that primitive people experienced in visions, dreams, and hallucination the presence of dead relatives, which made them infer that lifeless bodies were inhabited by souls or anima (Gripaldo).
The native american religion combined elements of Christianity with Native beliefs. It rejected white-American culture, which made it difficult to control the “tribes” by the United States. Many of these groups had their own beliefs though many of them were similar in the major aspects. At the time of Europe contact, all but the simplest indigenous cultures in North America developed religious systems that included “cosmologies”, which explains how those societies had come into being. The members of most tribes believed in the immortality of the human soul and an afterlife, the main feature of which was the abundance of every good thing that made earthly life secure and pleasant.
According to Chu (2010: 175) Chinese culture also practice polygyny/polygamy. Just as Church accommodations and inability to implement its policies, as well as the consent or collaboration of the Chinese mestizo or Indio wife or partner, can help explain the practice of the Catholic Chinese of having more than one “wife”, Chinese marriage customs also can contribute to our understanding of such practices. From the standpoint of Qing dynasty marriage practices, polygamy in which a man takes a wife legally and takes a concubine later on was allowed. Furthermore, it would not be implausible to think that Chinese wives back in China did not in principle oppose their husbands’ marriage to another woman from another country. Thus, from the point of view of a nineteenth-century Chinese, the practice of taking another wife overseas was regarded as a falling within the norms of Chinese social customs.
Primitive group marriage: In the prehistoric time, ancient Chinese lived together by groups and there was no such thing as fixed spouses. As the female group was the weak sex then and there was nothing shameful for them and no marriage customs restrict them. Consanguineous Marriage：Consanguineous
A. Filipino Family In her book The Filipino Family, Belen T.G. Medina shows “a comprehensive text on the sociology of the family as applied to the Philippine setting” (Medina 8). She discusses different roles of family members, which will be analyzed with its corresponding roles in Honor Thy Father. She also examines the different relationships formed in the family and this paper will focus on the father-daughter relationship presented by Medina. Lastly, she also discusses the responsibilities of a family that will be further elaborated in the context of Honor Thy
They confront the old religion and its practices, while demonstrating in their own lives that the new religion was a practical alternative for a renewal of their social order, and the people to seek harmony within one another. The Batak community accepted Christianity as part of their cultural identity in the early 20th century as it brought security to a culture that was no longer capable of holding the entire society together. Seen in the vitality of the modern Batak churches and the contribution individual Bataks have made to the now independent Republic of Indonesia, the missionaries were able to enable the society to make the transition, without loosing the patterns and values of their own tradition and culture. Traditionally, the Batak followed an animist religion. They believed in spirits that lived in the forest, trees, rivers, and animals, giving their worship to inanimate objects as well.
Preceding the arrival of Christianity and colonialism, polygyny is widely practiced in Africa, as it signifies the aspect of culture. More reason polygyny is prevalent in African homes is due to the fact that children are considered as a form of wealth by the society and a larger family is considered influential and powerful. Therefore this practice was deliberated as one of the way one could build an empire in Africa. It was after the era of colonialism in Africa that polygamy appeared to be a taboo as it was a norm in ancient times. Polygyny has been linked to the positive (the hustling and survival of the fittest spirit already instilled) and negative causes of child survival, but in general, high mortality and poor health are well-experienced in polygamous families.