12. The TLC data obtained is provided in a table below. The TLC data was conducted solely in a 9:1 hexane/ethyl acetate solvent solution as opposed to the 1:1 and pure hexane solution as well. This was due to the lack of time, but as explained in number 7, a very polar solvent (1:1 solution) or non-polar solvent (pure hexane) is not ideal when obtaining
This helps to indicate whether or not the reaction follows Markovnikov’s Rule, which states that the electrophile (E+) will add to the carbon involved in a double bond that produces the most stable carbocation. If the rule is followed, the reaction will proceed according to the mechanism in Figure 1. In the silver nitrate test, the alkyl bromide is added to AgNO3. The rate of precipitation with 2° should be faster than the solution with the 1° alkyl halide. In the sodium iodide test, the alkyl halide is added to sodium iodide in acetone.
We then used a small mortar and pestle to crush the aspirin and we placed the resulting powder into a conical flask, we crushed the aspirin tablets so that I would be easy to mix with the ethanol. We then added 5ml of ethanol using a measuring cylinder and covered the flask with a watch glass, we did this to avoid evaporation. We then gently heated the mixture over a water bath of around 60-70°C and swirled frequently, we did this so that it would dissolve the acetylsalicylic acid. We then filtered off the hot solution to remove any insoluble material in another small conical flask, we rinsed the flask with a few ml’s of chilled ethanol to collect any residue that was left on the flask. We then slowly added 25ml of chilled deionised water to the filtrate to initiate crystallization by using a measuring cylinder and a dropping pipette, once we had done this we left it for about 10 minutes to allow crystallization at room temperature.
Firstly, unknown B has a low melting point, a prominent characteristic among covalent compounds. This is due to the attraction between the atoms not being as reinforced as an ionic compound, thus it takes less energy to separate. In addition, unknown B has a very low solubility and conductivity, this is due to the atoms sharing electrons, therefore they cannot have the ability to separate and form an ion. However, it should be noted that covalent compounds should most definitely not be conductive or soluble, but the results have shown otherwise, thus it should be concluded that there may have been contamination between the scoopula’s used. Conclusion All in all, the experiment has provided much insight into the topic of ionic and covalent bonds regarding compounds.
Abstract The purpose of this lab was to identify the unknown and find out which solution is solubility. The test was done to determine the identity of the compound include solubility test, flame test, formation of precipitate and last PH test. It was found that the unknown compound smell like chorine, was soluble in water. The flame test matches the color of calcium chorine indicating that the unknown compound contained chorine, also the anion test sodium chorine proved to be positive. Resulting in the experiment that the unknown compound was chorine.
Problem: How does the temperature of water used to dissolve an Alka-Seltzer tablet affect the amount of time it would take for the tablet to completely dissolve? An Alka-Seltzer tablet is a medicine tablet made with baking soda used as a pain reliever for “headaches, body aches, pain, heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach” (Alka-Seltzer Tablets). It is put into water, left to dissolve and then consumed. When an Alka-Seltzer tablet is dropped into h20, a chemical reaction immediately takes place and produces bubbles made out of carbon dioxide as a product of the collision (Olson 2). When in its original powder (dry) form, the Alka-Seltzer’s two main ingredients: citric acid and sodium bicarbonate are just there and not reacting to each
However, orange juice also has electrolytes and these are naturally occurring, not man made. Although water is also a liquid recommended for exercise, it is not used for strenuous exercise because it has no electrolytes. I predict that while running an electric charge through both orange
After sitting , the CuO was decanted twice, and H2SO4 was added. Zinc was then added to the solution to reduce Cu2+ back to its original form, and any excess Zinc was decanted. The liquid was decanted and the solid was washed with H2O to wash away any acid, and the solid was
As the experiment went on, and as the blue copper chloride was turning clear, the reaction of the aluminum foil was slowing. The lighter the copper chloride got, the slower the red stuff was being produced. The purpose of this experiment was to determine what that red stuff was, aluminum or copper. The red stuff that was produced eventually dried out overnight and when I came back next class, it was completely dry. When it is dry, it is really fragile, it breaks to the touch and it stains anything it breaks apart on.
The active ingredients in the alka seltzer tablet are “As the tablets dissolve, the sodium bicarbonate splits apart to form sodium and bicarbonate ions. The bicarbonate ions react with hydrogen ions from the citric acid to form carbon dioxide gas (and water). This is how the bubbles are made.”(Scientific American) These bubbles are representative of a chemical change and the resulting carbon dioxide should increase the water 's density. This may actually increase the volume of the water taking longer to boil, this difference may be minuscule, even negligible, but there 's a possibility for distinct change in results. This scientific American puts it best “For the reaction to occur,
No quick endospore stain was performed to validate this assumption since only one assigned organism was endospore forming and unlike Unknown #10, that organism was Gram positive. By Gram staining alone, it was safe to eliminate the three Gram positive bacteria that could have been assigned: S. epidermidis, M. luteus, and B. megaterium. The second step was to streak plate Unknown #10 to observe its macroscopic
This lab’s end result was to correctly identify each unknown solution using prior knowledge of chemical properties and the results of the first experiment conducted. Unknown solution D was the only colored solution, being blue while the others were clear. This made it easy to then match D up to Copper Sulfate because of its color. As unknown A and B were added together, lots of gaseous bubbles formed and revealed the fact that that reaction was the reaction between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Carbonate because it was the only reaction that produced a gas release. Unknown A and C produced the only yellow, brown precipitate just as the reaction between Sodium Carbonate and Silver Nitrate had previously.
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.
My Citrate (CIT) result was turquoise so that meant the test was positive, and the Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) had no black precipitate so it was negative. The Urea (URE) and Tryptophane Deaminase (TDA) results were both an orange color, which meant they were both negative. For Indole (IND), my result was yellow so it was negative. My result was colorless for the Voges Proskauer (VP) test so it was negative. The Gelatin (GEL) test result had no diffusion of pigment so that showed it was negative.
But, in the case of speed of tarnishing between the two elements, potassium was faster than sodium. It dissolves completely in water quicker than sodium. Alkali metals tend to react violently or explosively with the water; however its reaction with methanol is gentler. The reaction of sodium or potassium with methanol caused a fizzing (gas released) until the metal