The other explanation is based on social responsibilities which indicate that individuals know the difference between the wrong and the right decisions and as such, decide to undertake in crime after making a conscious decision. Various theoretical perspectives can be used to support the two themes. For instance, social disorganization theory and strain theory can be used in explaining how social problems that exist in an individual’s environment can push them to undertake criminal activities. Social disorganization theory points out those illegal activities are more likely to take place in
We look are homelessness and functionalism and how on a macro leave how it affects homeless. We also look at the programs that available for people. Explanations using sociology theory The functionalist perspective, also called functionalism, is one of the major theoretical perspectives in sociology. Edward Durkheim, was the regional person who was greatly interested in seeing how social order is possible or how society remains relatively stable. As such the theory that focuses on the macro-level of social construction, rather than the micro-level of everyday life.
The theoretical framework for this study is derived from Max Weber’s Social Conflict theory. This criticism argues that the society is characterized by various inequalities and conflicts that cause people to act socially, producing change. In literary theory, it simply deals with literature often concerned with the inequality, injustice, class structures, violence, dehumanisation that pervades the society. It focuses on literature that often times seek to understand rather than simply accept the status quo in the society and by the mere act of seeking understanding which according to Kieran Allen “is often the first incipient sign of a rebellion against social norms”(7). The origin of this theory is often times traced back to the writings of
Tilley (2009) explained that crime is socially constructed and “patterns of criminality vary by the community and networks that offenders inhabit”. The social approach to crime prevention looks at the underlying social and economic causes of crime and aims to prevent crime by improving community cohesion. Hirschfield stated that areas of low social cohesion “do not have such well-defined social networks and is often the case that residents of these areas share very few common interests” (Hirschfield 1996, p1276) and these areas are likely to have a rise in burglaries as the level of deprivation increases. Neighbourhood Watch schemes were created as a method of reducing crime and increasing community cohesion through residents observing their
This theory argued that a persons physical and social environment are responsible for the behavioral choice he or she makes. Social Disorganization Theory correlated that criminal behavior is depending on the neighborhood structure and culture states. For example smaller neighborhoods living in poverty, disadvantage with little to no resources tend to have increased youth violence, and crime. This theory is not intending for all types of crime, but more so community and street crimes. The relationship between the neighborhood and crime correlates because the theory is to prove that these lower class and poverty enriched neighborhoods predict these youths future.
When speaking about racism, we need to understand how it is socially constructed. Ones status in society plays a role in social categorization which allows us to conclude that categorization is a social construct. McLeod, S states that “social identity is a person’s sense of who they are based on their group membership(s)” (McLeod, SA. 2008). All people are looking for in this social world is to find a place where they belong.
McKay developed the social disorganisation theory (Bond, 2015:1). The social disorganisation theory, which is regarded as one of the most important theories connected to ecological theories, was developed through Shaw and McKay’s research from the Chicago School of Criminology (Xiong, 2015:47). Social disorganisation theory is primarily utilised in order to examine the relationship which exists between the community and crime (Xiong, 2015:47). The social disorganisation theory presumes that criminal behaviour is the result of social as well as physical environments of an individual (Briggs, 2016:1). Consequently, an environment with unravelling social structures will most likely also have high crime rates (Briggs, 2016:1).
To facilitate their endeavors, sociologists utilize sociological theories that study society on the micro- and macro level. In the following, I will use the conflict theory, which operates on the macro-level, as well as the symbolic interactionist theory, which focuses on the micro-scale of society, to explain the influence of globalization and the associated phenomena of inequality and conflict on the individual and society. The conflict theory approaches society on the macro-level. It was established by Karl Marx, who believed that social conflict stands at the center of sociocultural realities. His evolutionary theory came to be known as one of the most significant early contributions to sociology.
This paper draws on existing sociological research in identifying a number of theories used in explaining the formation of gangs. The theories discussed are social structure theories, social conflict theory, and social process theories all of which highlight elements of strain in different forms as they relates to gang formation. According to Merton, (as cited in Schneider & Tilly, 2004) structural theories significantly emphasize the role of social and economic structures as the causes of delinquent behavior and tend to treat criminal behavior as the result of the undesirable and dysfunctional structures (P. 3.). Many strain theorists recognize that the greatest amount of strain is evident in the lower class groups (Hagan, 2008; Siegel, 2011;
Oscar Lewis first introduced the culture of poverty theory in 1959 in his book Five Families: Mexican Case Studies in the Culture of Poverty but truly elaborates on his theory in La Vida: A Puerto Rican Family in the Culture of Poverty – San Juan and New York (1965). He believed people living in poverty did not feel like they belonged to the society they lived in as a result of marginalization and lack of acceptance by the general population (Lewis, 1998). Consequently, this segregation