Cognitive Process Of Memory Essay

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This essay will be evaluating two research studies (Craik and Lockhart 1972, Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968) and the ideas they put forth in relation to the cognitive process of Memory. Memory is defined as the mental process that stores, processes and retrieves information specifically required for certain situations. The two Models offer different perspectives on how Memory works. Memory is commonly known to have 3 major stages as the following:
• Encoding- This is what allows a perceived object to be converted into a construct that can be stored in the brain. This is a passive and sometimes active process.
• Storage- This is the stage that actually stores the previously mentioned “construct” in the mind. This process occurs passively only.
• Retrieval/Recall- This is the process that allows us to remember things by bringing the memory out of the “storage” to the forefront of the mind.
There is also another step which
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Has unlimited storage but decays rapidly.
Short-Term Memory- Stores information for a brief period of time and has a limit to its capacity.
Long-Term Memory- Stores information over a long period of time and has an unlimited capacity, however, less remembered information or old information starts to fade.
The Model proposes that the process of storing a memory takes place in a linear sequence as mentioned above. The basic concept is that Once information is input through Sensory Memory, awareness of this information will move it to Short-Term Memory and rehearsal of this information will move it to Long-Term Memory. It is implied that the model is linear so that the information cannot travel back however memories can diminish or fade over

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