Chloroacetic acid (0.5 g, 5. 28 mmol), 5-aminotetrazole monohydrate (0.45 g, 5. 28 mmol), and sodium hydroxide (0.59 g, 10.57 mmol) in 10 ml of water was refluxed 20 hr, cooled, and made strongly acidic with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The mixture was cooled overnight and precipitate was separated to give 0.28 g a white solid product at 45.41% yield. (5-Amino-tetrazol-1-yl)-acetic acid: Yield: 45.41%; white crystals; m.p 210-213°C; IR (KBr): 3388, 3315, 3270, 3205, 3010, 2976, 1697, 1638, 1586, 1496, 1257 cm-1; 13C NMR (75 MHz (DMSO-d6)): 168, 156,
You can use your homemade dark brown sugar exactly as you would the version from a grocery store. A Decent Second Choice: Light Brown Sugar Light brown sugar is an effective dark brown sugar substitute simply because it is also a blend of molasses and sugar. The difference is that less molasses is used. You can increase the molasses content by adding a tablespoon of molasses to each cup of light brown sugar and removing a tablespoon of the sugar. Another option is simply to use unadulterated light brown sugar.
Experimental Methods: 1. SYNTHESIS OF 4-BENZOYL BUTYRIC ACID METHYL ESTER Materials required * 5 oxopentanoic acid : 2 gm (Aldrich) * Methanol : 50 ml * Acetic Acid (Rankem) Procedure: * 2 grams of 5 oxopentanoic acid was weighed and placed in a round bottom flask and then to it 50 ml of methanol was added. It was placed on a hot plate and the temperature was increased to 50 degrees under ambient air conditions. * To the RB, 2 ml of acetic acid was added and then by attaching a condenser the entire reaction was put on refluxing at 70 degrees Celsius in an oil bath. * For work up: * The reaction media was concentrated till about 10 ml and then dry silica gel was added.
In this experiment, racemic 2-methylcyclohexanone was reduced using sodium borohydride as a nucleophile to give a diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans secondary alcohols. The products were analyzed for purity using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography. 1.2 g of 2-methylcyclohexanone and 10 mL of methanol were combined in a flask and cooled in an ice bath. Two 100 mg portions of sodium borohydride were added to the flask and stirred. 5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred.
We then added 10cm3 ethanoic anhydride to the salicylic acid and swirled the contents, this mixes together the two chemicals. We then added 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the flask and thoroughly swirled the mixture, this creates the solution that makes the aspirin. We then warmed the flask for 20 minutes in a 400cm3 beaker of hot water which was approximately 60°C, we made sure the flask did not go above 65°C because this could have caused the contents to evaporate. Part 2: Using a 25cm3 measuring cylinder we measured out 15cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube and then prepared a beaker half filled with hot water at approx. 75°C, we got this temperature by filling the beaker with cold water and slowly adding boiling water from a kettle until we reached the right temperature.
It also releases SO2 which acts as preservative. Liquids vanillin and vanilla Powder: Flavor is very important for baking industry as it performs the following functions: • Gives a rich appetizing taste to the product • It has a stimulating effect on digestive function • It makes a product having uniform taste. Skimmed milk powder (SMP): It contains lactose, which is a reducing sugar that combines with protein by maillard reaction at high temperature during baking and imparts attractive color and surface bloom if SMP is well dispersed thoroughly in cold water before incorporation in the formula. Moisture- 4.0% maximum Solubility- 98.5% Color- white • SMP combines with the gluten in wheat to produce soft and moist dough for baking. • It increases the nutritive value.
SDS-Polyacrylamide gels were prepared and the glass plates were washed with 70% ethanol and water. After drying the plates, water was used for test leakages. Two SDS-Polyacrylamide gels were prepared according to the following recipe. These all above components of the running gel were added in a 50 ml tube and solutions were mixed and pipetted into the prepared gel chambers. Glass plates were filled ¾ and the gel was covered with 100-500 µl Isopropanol in order to achieve an even surface.
Regarding reaction 4, the duration was changed to 480 seconds. After the Styrofoam cups were restacked, 100mL HCl was added. The lid was added and the probe was instered. A watch glass was weighed, then weighed again after scooping on 1.0g MgO. After 3-4 readings were recorded, the MgO was added with the spatula, which was stirred constantly with the stir bar.
Typically, FeCl2.4H2O (4.3 g) and FeCl3.6H2O (11.6 g) were mixed with 350 mL of deionized water under N2 atmosphere. The resulting solution was heated to 80 °C while stirring, vigorously. Then, 20 mL of 25% NH4OH was quickly added into the solution. The resulting suspension was vigorously stirred for 5 min and then, the black precipitates were collected with the help of a magnet and washed repeatedly with deionized water and ethanol, then dried at vacuum
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions that take place on benzene, and how the presence of substituents in the ring affect the orientation of the incoming electrophile. Using acetanilide, as the starting material, glacial acetic acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid were mixed and stirred to produce p-nitroacetanilide. In a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 3.305 g of acetanilide were allowed to mix with 5.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. This mixture was warmed in a hot plate with constantly stirring at a lukewarm temperature so as to avoid excess heating. If this happens, the mixture boils and it would be necessary to start the experiment all over again.