He conducted a research when he was living five years with his family next to a crack house in East Harlem during the mid-1980s through the early 1990s. As an ethnographer he managed to gain the trust and long-term friendship of street-level drug dealers in one of the roughest ghetto neighborhoods in East Harlem. During research he spent hundreds of nights on the street and in crack house. He also documented the many self-destructive behaviors that leads people for addiction. He always keep his informant secret while conducting the research.
The sketch helps to shows items and the position of different objects found in the crime scene. The beneficial aspect about sketching a crime scene is that it can cover a larger area, and it can cut the clutter found in certain photographs. Over all, the job of forensic anthropologists will consist of analyzing the human remains and conclude the gender, age, ancestry, disease, trauma, and time of death, as well if the individual had any injuries or wounds. The job of crime scene investigators will work differently and will make sure that after gathering their evidence it will be securely preserved, transported, and documented. This is so that when it reaches the laboratories or reaches on the hands of a forensic anthropology, the evidence will still be preserved and easy to analyze.
Discuss the significance of scientific racism for criminology. Crime is a social phenomenon that accompanies humanity for as long as there is the society itself. The issue of crime has been covered more than once in the work of the thinkers of past centuries and its relations within the race has been widely explored since ancient times (Treadwell, 2012). However, a systematic interest in the study emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century, when criminology began to form an independent scientific discipline. Criminology developed as a natural result of the evolution of theoretical ideas about crime and practical approaches to its prevention in the 19th century (Kerner, 1998).
The occurrence of crime has been related to a variety of socio-economic and crime opportunity factors, such as population density, economic investment and arrest rate. Crime usually has spatial and temporal characteristics related to the population, environment, economic factors, politics, and social events. One of the most effective temporal-spatial analysis for the understanding of the implicit relationships among
The three papers that have been reviewed and discussed throughout the most of the third chapter refer to the situations in three different countries. The authors conducted research with the aim of discovering if there is a causal relationship between the immigration and crime. All of the papers focus on a similar time period, varying between the 1980’s and 2000’s. . Furthermore, all of the research offer almost the same results.
To have a better understanding of crime rate “social disorganization” was utilized. The social disorganization theory consisted of poverty, rapid population growth, heterogeneity, and physical issues. Shaw and McKay determined that neighborhoods with the highest crime rate usually faced poverty and heterogeneity. Overall, The Chicago School determined that economic and environmental factors were probably reasons for juvenile delinquency in urban
Instead of just locking up criminals every time a law was broken, sociologists found that there needed to be effort put in place towards preventing crime. These attempts became known as environmental criminology: ways to limit crime in areas rather than simply punishing criminals. The concept of environmental criminology may be fairly new, but its ideas expand upon the original work done by professionals such as the ones at the Chicago School. When looking at the impoverished, these sociologists noticed that crime thrived and created many problems within neighborhoods. Such troubles continue to exist today all around the world.
The first real study of social disorganization happened during the 1800’s in France by two men, Adolph Quetelet and Andre-Michel Guerry. They studied social disorganization by taking the recently released criminal records and mapping them. They were able to show that crime is related to places. After Adolph and Andre Michel came Robert Parks and Ernest Burgess who studied the similarities between ecology and urban social structures. Parks and Burgess after seeing how time played a role in how cities are affected, created a theory called the Concentric Zone theory.
The data gathered on accidents can be purposefully interpreted and used only if modern statistical methods are employed. Kadiyali (1996) has described number of statistical methods which are currently being applied in Accident research. •Regression Method The basic principle behind this method is that the expected number of accidents on acertain road system during a given time period, is dependent in a linear way on factors which are supposed to be of significance for the determination of the accident