Introduction: 250 Before finding solutions to a problem, it is essential to begin by asking the right questions. The majority of criminological theories question why people deviate from the norm which is conformity, into individuals who commit crime; control theories however begin to look at society from a complete different angle. Control theorists believe the default position or ‘state of norm’ would be that everyone in society be criminal,
Deviance and Social Learning Literature review The study of deviance and social learning theory uses different variables in determining the extent of using in each substance. The concept and variables of social learning theory are the imitation, definition, differential association, and differential reinforcement towards the explanation of deviant behavior. These variables served as the predictors in illustrating the results of the past research conducted. Most of the variables being used give a wide range in the extension of the study to elaborate the effects and results of its variants in the commission of an act. According to Akers (1998), social learning as a general theory explains criminal and deviant behavior through maintaining
Differential Association Edwin Sutherland Theory proports that through interaction with others individuals learn values, attitudes, techniques, motives for criminal behaviour. Two different cultures exist, with one being criminal and the other conventional. Normal learning occurs through verbal and non verbal communication that helps to establish whether attitudes of individuals is favorable to law violation through normal learning processes by individuals who are disposed towards breaking the law. They develop motivation for engaging in criminal activity and attitudes that drives them to deviate. Different cycles of criminality can also influence their lives where criminal behavior occurs with intimate interactions through socialization.
Through this, the individual understands their place in the narrative of their life and society as a whole. To understand “crime” as a codified social, moral, and idolized goal of that society, deviance will refer to deviance from that legal moral contract, Canadian law. Using research from Silverman and Teevan (1980), Herrmann and Dukelow (2004), and Cruikshank (1999) the inclusion and exclusion factors used to define society and normalcy as it informs social narratives and criminality in forming the technologies of criminality. Following, the perspective of the self in relation to the criminal narrative will be examined using Bentham (as recorded in Pfohl and Bushway 1986), Mattingly (1994), and a contemporary case will interpret the emplotment of criminal events. The research of Fattah (1998),
Fourth, When criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes (a) techniques of committing the crime, which is sometimes very complicated, sometimes simple; (b) the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes. Fifth, the specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable. Sixth, a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law. Seventh, Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. Eighth, the process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.
Sociology of Law and Order Introduction The act of examining why people commit crime is very vital because it assists in knowing how crime is handled. Because of this, many theories have come up that try to explain why crime occurs and the possible remedies to the causes. When crime is committed, every society would have its own way of framing laws that can be used to punish lawbreakers. Thus, the kind of punishment given to a criminal depends on the society one is living in. what becomes obvious is that no matter what punishment the society gives, the decision is affected by theories of punishment.
Social structure theories look at the formal and informal economic and social arrangements of society that cause crime and deviance. The negative aspects of social structure such as disorganization within a family, poverty, and disadvantages because of lack of success in educational areas are looked upon as the producers of criminal behavior (Schmalleger, 2012). The three major types of social structure theories are Social Disorganization, Strain, and Culture Conflict (Schmalleger, 2012). Social disorganization theory is based on the idea that changes, conflict, and the lack of social consensus in society are the reasons for criminal behavior. This theory views society as a living organism and that criminal behavior is compared to a disease.
Since standards likewise banish conduct, standards are requesting social life and thusly standards can likewise be seen as coercive. By diminishing unpredictability, standards likewise arrange activities what's more help a compelling association of society. Standards of the lawful framework have comparative capacities but on the other hand are emphatically associated with the political structure; law imparts governmental issues (Hydén, 1978 in Baier, M.2013). Societal standards pervade very nearly all parts of society and are key for what we call 'society'. Since societal standards are essential for society, relations in the middle of social and legitimate standards should be principal to the investigative investigation of law in the public arena, be it in the investigation of law and society, human science of law, socio-legitimate studies, criminology, human studies of law, or whatever other investigative investigation of the standardizing part of society.
Crime can be describe as classification of behavior defined by people who has power and the authority to make the laws which will identify some behavior as offensive and the offender can be punished. Crime is more to violation of crime, and it is harmful either physically or psychologically. Examples of crimes are bribery, murder or robbery. Deviance can be define as an abnormal behavior or morally offensive and threatening. It is a wide term used to refer to a behavior which violates the social norms of the society which cannot be accepted by a number of people in a community, in example, a man with a full body tattoo.
It is formed by ideological considerations about how to deal with the offence, how it should be punished and controlled. Theorists of positivist criminology, which as the second type of criminology will be discussed believed that through collecting information about social world they will be able to explain behaviour of the offender (Case, et al., 2017). Ceaseare Lombroso, Erico Ferri and Raffaele Garofalo are linked with positivist criminological thought. This theory emerged in the 19th century along with development of other sciences which influenced on positivist criminology. It can be one of the reason why positivism is much more extended than classicism.