Researchers have invested decades worth of time and data, attempting to answer the question of what causes crime. The study of criminological theory contains a great number of explanations, focused on discovering why exactly, crime occurs. Whether causations are biological, psychological, or sociological in nature, theory has lead us closer to answering the question of why crime happens. Perhaps causations are best explained using hybrid explanations that include a little bit of everything.
These are clear indications of poor self-control. Another aspect of this theory is the effect child rearing can have on self-control. Gottfredson and Hirschi believed that there was a strong correlation between parental control and self-control. They also identified a link between the self-control of the parent and the subsequent self-control of the child (Cullen, 2014). Gottfredson and Hirschi believed that it would be hard for a parent to recognize criminal behavior if they are engaged in this type of behavior as well.
The principle in law that one is innocent until proven guilty has created much discourse. There are those who feel that the moment that one is arrested, there is reasonable belief that they committed the crime. However, there are those who feel that just as the principle states, one is, and should be taken as a victim and the outcome could be either way: guilty or not guilty. In fact, this argument is supported by the many cases of malicious prosecutions and mistaken identities.
The last attributes are called super-ego which judges our situations through morality, ("Varying Theories on Crime," n.d). Social Structure Theory originated in the Sociological Theory area which takes a diverse posture stating that if biologic factors clarify criminal activities, then why does most criminal activities are found in bad neighborhoods? The ideology of this theory refers to conditions like: urban conditions, conflict, and criminal behavior, ("Varying Theories on Crime,"
It may be that the disorder was influenced by either nature or nurture, or both could influence it. The debate about whether a person is born a criminal could go in a lot of different directions. One could say that a person is a criminal because of their nature and what their parents passed down to them or another could say that only a person’s nurture influenced them to do things that made them a criminal. What most people say is that a person does things that make them a criminal because of both their nature and their nurture. They do things based off of what they got from their parents as well as what environmental factors influence
That’s why when they grow up, they will do what they saw and have a high chance to become criminals. Parental control not tight also make the violent show have a chance to infiltrate into children’s
Sutherland’s first three principles discuss how criminal behaviour is learned within intimate personal groups and through a process of communication (Lilly, Ball & Cullen, 2015, p. 45). This fits with the family. One can use Leonardo as an example. Due to the fact that he grew up in a family that was very involved with crime, Leonardo would have been exposed with criminal culture growing up more than conventional culture, which according to Sutherland, would allow him to accept the criminal lifestyle easier. This point also fits in with principle six states that a person will get involved in criminal activity due to: “an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law” (Lilly, Ball & Cullen, 2015, p. 45).
Furthermore, the psychology of criminal behavior, psychology, and criminology all have a primary objective of achieving an understanding of the variation in the criminal behavior of individuals (Andrews and Bonta , 2010). Empirically, the study of variation in criminal behavior is done by the studying of covariates (Andrews and Bonta , 2010). The primary covariates that PCC studies are biological, social, and psychological (Andrews and Bonta , 2010). Although, criminology tends to assess criminality at an aggregate level, in comparison to the psychology of criminal conduct’s focus on an individual level. Additionally, a psychology of criminal conduct involves applying what is learned by the studying of psychological information and methods to the predicting and influencing the propensity of criminal behavior on an individual
Instead the focus was on what was facilitating it-such as criminogenic environments due to economic hardship, broken homes, and potential mental conflicts. Thus the Progressive period was more interested in the government treating rather than judging the offender, and felt that keeping one incarcerated made it impossible to rehabilitate them into normal society. Consequently, probation, parole, and indeterminate sentencing became solutions to crime. The medical model views crime as being caused by underlying psychological factors. This placed a strong reliance on psychological remedies for crime, including psychological analysis, diagnosis, and treatment of the root causes of criminal behavior similar to the treatment of a patient with a mental illness.
In the recent news, everyone’s heard of the rise in hate crime. Most hate crime is “motivated by racial, sexual, or other prejudice, typically one involving violence,” (Dictionary.com). Hate crimes have spanned across the country and impact thousands of lives each year. The FBI started investigating hate crimes at the turn of the 20th century. The FBI define hate crime as, “criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender’s bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender, or gender identity,” (FBI).
When this starts to happen crime develops, and for people that live their they become accustomed to the criminal environment. Still even though an area is bad doesn 't mean the people are, criminal behavior is taught by others. Once someone is doing something wrong they convince others that what their doing is nessary. Certian theory explains why other follow criminal behavior and why children and easily influenced to doso. Social theory implies that criminal behavior is learned through close relations with others, it asserts that children are born good but learned to be bad.
The socio-cultural dimension of Peter is important to assess because this will allow me to understand Peter from a person-in-environment perspective and any cultural factors that may affect treatment. For example, in some cultures spanking is a more acceptable form of punishing children whereas in other cultures spanking children is viewed as inhumane. The socio-cultural dimension assesses family functioning, family roles or customs, as well as family financial status. This is also the part in the assessment where I would ask questions pertaining to Peter’s educational history, work history, and legal history.