Introduction Jennifer Ebarhardt who, through her collaboration with different experts in various fields such as law, criminology, novel studies that further law enforcements and judges as well as criminology discover in her studies found out that there is racial bias in today’s policing and sentencing of criminals such that black color is stereotype as group of people who are associated with violence and therefore they mostly received death sentence especially when their victims are whites and therefore they are blacks who are arrested. These behaviors can be best explains using the following theories: General Strain Theory According to this theory, people are involved in crimes because they are not in a position to achieve their goals making them to be frustrated and has the following sources: A person aspiring to become wealth and famous but these aspirations are impossible making them to engage in vandalism or physical attacks which are antisocial forms of behaviors, a person may experience strains due to removal of highly valued stimuli such as migration to new residence will make him/her to get involved in criminal activities in efforts to revenge the loss of highly valued stimuli. Black American youths are unable to meet making them to develop frustration and delinquency. Most of these youths at adolescents age feels compelled to be in a specific environment let’s say school which may proof to be painful to them and since there little they can do to avoid
However, Michelle Alexander disproves in “The New Jim Crow” that blacks commit more crimes than whites, the drug usage rates are the same between both races, propaganda has influenced the way mainstream society views blacks and that the “War on Drugs” and the “Get Tough on Crime” was policies targeted towards inner cities and people of color with the intent to enslave them in the criminal justice system by giving them felonies in which people of color are disenfranchise by society. The author calls this a “Racial Caste System” because it discriminates like it never has before, since it allows anyone who is labeled a “felon” to be legally discriminated against with housing, education, employment and voting rights. Since many more people of color are made felons than white by mass incarceration, racial discrimination is a powerful as it was under slavery or under the post-slavery era of Jim Crow
For example, a felony and little time in jail may be better than risking multiple felonies and an excessive amount of time in jail. Therefore, making plea bargains necessary for the courts although more minorities use these plea bargains, which could potentially explain why so many minorities are over represented in the correctional system (Walker, Spohn, & DeLone,
African Americans experiences with police are more violent and unfair compared to whites. The series of analyses that Schuck and Rosenbaum (2005) designed were to investigate the relations among type and quality of police contact and residents' attitudes toward the police. People who had negative contact with police reported negative feed back and people who had non-negative contact reported good feedback. For whites, their perception of police may be influenced more by media while blacks would be influenced more by their type of neighborhood. The reason for this is because blacks come in contact more with the police than whites.
Numerous studies have provided different perspectives and evidence on the impact of racial inequality in the criminal justice systems, specifically how these racial inequalities affect black Americans. Lisa Miller found in The Invisible Black: Victim, “mistreatment by law enforcement, law-makers, and federalism” in the racial bias toward black Americans (2010). Pettit and Skyes in Civil Rights Legislation and Legalized Exclusion, point out that black males are more likely to end up in jail (2015). A sociologist named David Garland contrived the term “mass incarceration” to explain high incarceration rates in the United States (U.S) (Pettit and Skyes 2015). Currently, the highest incarceration is among black men of 1 in 15 (Miller 2010).
Hughey supports this assertion when he states, “Black Americans who are fatally shot by police are, in fact, less likely to be posing an imminent lethal threat to the officers at the moment they are killed than white Americans fatally shot by police” (Hughey 859). Because black males have more confrontations with law enforcement officials, the stereotype that blacks are naturally more predisposed to violence and crime becomes substantiated, which creates a never ending circle of prejudice and fear for police officers against black
The racial disparity can be accounted for through the mass incarceration of black offenders in terms of sentencing with mention of a racial caste in place, not allowing those of color to move from their position. As such, mass incarceration has led to prisons being filled with an overpopulation of those who are black than any other race. Interesting enough, it has been proven through surveys that those who are white are more likely to engage in drug crime rather than those who are black. I found this to be an interesting point to discuss as it raises the question as to just why are more people of color incarcerated at a growing rate than
When the phrase Jim Crow is uttered, many people feel a rush of inept thoughts and bad memories due to the social taboo against talking of the lowest point in America’s history. Jim Crow was not just a set of laws aimed to oppress the lives of all black people, but a movement by the citizens, black or white, that caused a corrupt mindset in all men and women. Many people tried to stop the social force from continuing in individual spurts of courage, but they were not able to stop Jim Crow as individuals. An individual’s own personal courage cannot fight against Jim Crow, because a single person would not be able to stop an entire movement embedded into the minds of millions of people, not to mention how the social pressure against it was too strong to even fathom fighting against it. One main reason why it was unable for Jim Crow to be fought by a single person is because there was no feasible way in which one person, no matter how powerful, rich, or socially accepted, could have changed the entirety of
People when placed under control will naturally resist power. In Anthem the main character is put under arrest and by law he should say what he did but again and again his captures ask “Are you ready to speak,’ but we shook our head” When under arrest he still wouldn’t give up the
Beside restorative justice, mass incarceration acts as another solution to decrease the amount of crime, yet it should be limited. There has been a longstanding debate over the effectiveness of correctional institutions. Some argue that incarceration deters offenders while others argue that the experience of being incarcerated causes individuals to continue in their life of crime. According to Bruce Western, a professor of sociology and director of the Malcolm Wiener Center, the drastically increase amount of incarceration resulted from problems such as harming prisoners, families, and social groups. He indicates, “Black are seven times more likely to be incarcerated than whites, and large racial disparities can be seen for all age groups and