He states that the reason the prosecution and conviction of minorities in the case where a white person is the victim is a result of the location of the prosecutions. In his paper, Gilboa analyzes some statistics regarding the claim and makes derives from it this: If death sentences are relatively unlikely in metropolitan areas, how might it shed light on the white-victim effect? Our best answer is this. Murder victims in metropolitan counties are predominantly African American (Gilboa, 2010). I don’t agree with this statement because it implies that African Americans are particularly singled out by the government to receive such a penalty because the government enforces capital punishment in certain states that are predominately black.
In Michelle Alexander’s book, “The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness,” Alexander addresses a topic that many may not know is happing. Alexander addresses the racism towards people of color by using the legal system as a tool to legally segregate people of color as well as poor whites. Alexander touches upon the way politicians use the war on drugs as an excuse to build more jails to incarcerate poor people of color. She also talks about the way police use racial profiling.
Michele Alexander has stated that the marginalization, stigmatization, and the discrimination of people of color who constitutes to the new racial caste is not due to them being black, but rather it is the impact of falling into a “non-racialized “ criminal justice system at the epicenter of what is known is mass incarceration. The mass incarceration of the minorities and more so those involved in non-violent drug offenses and the disproportionate application of capital punishments for those killing whites and other disparities in sentencing all point to a legal system that still treat the minorities more harshly when compared to the whites. At one time, Stevenson went to prison, and he was forced to go back to his car to show that he was indeed an attorney. The correction department officers wanted to strip search him and wanted him to sign a book that he was visiting the prison. Contrastingly, attorneys are not supposed to sign the book.
Do you believe there is a new Jim Crow in America 's justice system? Well, in the book The New Jim Crow by Michelle Alexander, Alexander believes that America 's criminal justice system is racially biased. Furthermore, she believes that the legal system is trying to punish African Americans. There are many people that believe Alexander statements is very bold and not true. Adam Gopnik who wrote the article How We Misunderstand And Mass Incarceration believes that America criminal justice system is not racially biased, but the system has political motives.
Racial profiling by law enforcement is commonly defined as “a practice that targets people for suspicion of crime based on their race, ethnicity, religion or national origin” (“Racial Profiling”). Racial profiling can be done because of stereotypes like “Blacks and Hispanics are more prone to crime” (Niller). However, that doesn’t mean that is alright for officers to “stop and search people” (“The Problem”) or shoot them because they look agitated. The power to stop and search is given by the fourth amendment requires that the police have a “reasonable suspicion that a crime has been, is being, or is about to be committed before stopping a suspect.
For example, open Black support of harsh punishment and law enforcement may seem hypocritical because in reality these policies and practices contribute to mass incarceration of Blacks. Alexander clarifies that Black support is more complex than it appears and can be attributed to a combination of complicity and wanting better safety for their communities and families (Alexander, 2012, p.210). Alexander also offers a unique perspective throughout the entire book by explaining how the systems of slavery and oppression have affected White individuals and not merely in the form of privilege or the dismissal of White people as simply as racist individuals. I resonated with one particular section discussing the "White victims of racial caste" (Alexander, 2012, p.204); the author 's anecdote of a white woman falling in love with a Black man and due to miscegenation laws could not have children. I could relate to this story on a deeply personal level in that my own parents experienced extreme and countless hurdles due to their interracial relationship and having biracial
Even before our nation’s founding, people of color have been discriminated. Decades pass and the criminal justice system is still “racist” labeling people of color as criminal, meaning black equal criminals therefore is fine to discriminate people of color just because they’re criminals. In “The New Jim Crow” the system targets black men because they are associated with crime, meaning crime stands in for race. In the other hand, As Heather Mac Donald writes in her book “The War on Cops”, “The criminal-justice system does treat individual suspects and criminals equally, they concede. But the problem is how society defines crime and criminals” (154).
James Queally and Joe Mozingo on the article “Feds fault San Francisco police for violence against minorities and recommend 272 reforms” explains how law enforcement is racially biased towards minorities. Queally and Mozingo support their claim by mentioning the rise of police brutality against Blacks and Latinos and describing the type slurs used when law enforcement are referring to minorities amongst their fellow colleague. The authors’ purpose is to show the reader the type of way law enforcement is unfair to people of color and different cultures. The authors write in a serious tone to those seeking to end police brutality.
As details of a key compromise measure that did not meet the intended goals became evident, the same groups who had earlier supported the FSA, were now criticizing it. The new law only reduces, but does not eliminate, the sentencing disparity that appears to be directed towards those of the African American community. The criticisms are centered at too many of the low-level drug dealers are being sentenced and incarcerated by the federal criminal justice system (Reid 2012). During this time of accusations by former supporters, the bipartisan cooperation, who were key to the passage of the FSA, created an historic political event. To demonstrate their frustrations they used intense partisan wrangling for a large range of different political issues upon Capitol Hill, and dominated the debate and stymied the proceedings (Gertsman
While officers can legally use physical and even deadly force under some circumstances, police have engaged in unjustified shootings, unnecessarily rough treatment, and severe beatings. The increase of police brutality has caused citizens
Many evidence support the view that there are biases in the criminal justice system against members of minority groups. One of the issues with discriminatory practices is that legal apparatus for antidiscrimination law is based on intentional discrimination. Many issues of overrepresentation of minority group individuals at all levels of the justice system have profound effects not only for those who are accused and convicted but also for the victims of crime. Victims from racialized communities, knowing that members of their community are unfairly treated under the law, may feel both personal pressure and community pressure to not report crimes committed against them or testify in court. Slavery, and the concomitant violence committed against
Racial invariance positions and sociological viewpoints on race and race contrasts in conditions and should account for the racial composition or black effect on level violence rates. Examination led in 1990 gives blended or opposite confirmation to this position, demonstrating that greater concentrations of blacks are connected to increased violence after accounting for racial differences in socioeconomic conditions. Black violent crimes is highly relevant in today’s society. Most crimes are committed by African Americans due to many factors but where are these factors taking place and who else is taking place in these crimes other than the targeted ethnicity.
People with different ethnic backgrounds are suspected of committing a crime because of stereotypes people believe are true. A source said, “Researchers consistently find that people of color are more likely to be stopped and frisked; that white Americans are more likely to use illegal drugs, but black Americans are more likely to be jailed for drug use; that black men are sentenced to longer prison terms than their white peers for the same crimes and, even more incredibly, that the more stereotypically “black looking” a defendant is, the more likely he is to be sentenced to death. White Americans support harsh criminal penalties not despite but because they believe black offenders will be disproportionately affected.” (“Racism Is So Insidious, Even Black People Underestimate
Another way we are still paying the bill is through the War on Drugs. The War on Drugs affects many blacks today. It is a flawed system - one that sends cops into black neighborhoods in order to enforce the prohibition of drugs. However, “So many feel so oppressed because of a sense of cops as more likely to kill them for thin or nonexistent reasons. (McWhorter)