It can help for police resource allocation to create a safe environment. Here the survey of different types of data mining techniques presents for crime hotspot prediction. Keywords – Data mining; crime hotspot; prediction; accuracy; I) INTRODUCTION Crime is a well-known social problem that affecting the quality of life and the economic development of a society. Crime is classically unpredictable . The occurrence of crime has been related to a variety of socio-economic and crime opportunity factors, such as population density, economic investment and arrest rate.
Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/sociology/deviance/section1.rhtml). Norms dictate what is considered acceptable and unacceptable behavior across cultures. One category of deviance is crime, which occurs when someone violates a society's formal laws. Criminal deviance include a wide range of behavior, from minor traffic violations to arson to murder. For instance, a man robbing a store and someone driving over the speed limit, both fit into this category.
Introduction Society and its laws are what make man what they are, that without any social regulation man is able to pursue as well as achieve its own desires which can lead to criminal behaviour. The motivation for crime is derived from societal forces that pressure people to commit crime. Anomie theories tend to have a more macro-level focus. Therefore the research that has been conducted covers why exactly people commit crimes as well as breaking down the Anomie theory for a more clear understanding. In connection to the structure of this review, there will be a discussion on the reasons for criminal activity, secondly what is the anomie theory and how the Anomie theory is one platform that can be used to describe its relationship to crime, and furthermore, the anomie theory will be broken down into sections to give the reader a more clear understanding.
The due process model is seen to focus on the suspect whereas the crime control model focuses on the society. This paper analyzes these two models and based on the rate of crime in the society, makes recommendations as to which is the best model in criminal justice. The principle in law that one is innocent until proven guilty has created much discourse. There are those who feel that the moment that one is arrested, there is reasonable belief that they committed the crime. However, there are those who feel that just as the principle states, one is, and should be taken as a victim and the outcome could be either way: guilty or not guilty.
ENVIROMENTAL CRIMINOLOGY SOC 246 Assignment Crime refers to any act that deviant from cultural norms and that contravenes the criminal law. Victims of crime may be any gender, age. Race or ethnicity. Victimization may happen to an individual, family, group or community and a crime maybe to a person, or property. The impact of crime on an individual victim, their loved ones, and their community depend on a variety of factors but often crime victimization has significant emotional, psychological, physical, financial and social consequences.
Today crime is a frequent occurrence seen and heard everywhere. It is an central part of the risks in everyday life. Experts state that crime is associated with harm and violence; harm to individuals, destruction of property, and the denial of respect to people and institutions. Pressing problems of a social and individual nature exist in understanding crime. Though there is a lack of agreement on the most basic question, namely what crime is, everyone agrees that whatever act is against the welfare of the humanity is crime.
Custodial violence, including torture and death in the lock-ups, strikes heavy blow at the rule of law which demands that the powers of executive should not only be derived from law but also that they should be limited by law. The law of arrest expects both individual rights and the states’ collective responsibility towards the society. In most scenarios it becomes a challenge to strike a perfect balance between both. Transparency of action and accountability are two possible safeguards to prevent any abuse of power to arrest a citizen. Custodial violence broadly includes custodial deaths, torture and as per the new trend in the crime pattern even custodial rapes.
One theory named Sociological theory said that a lot of people commit crimes people they have a lot of strain and struggle in their life (Steven.B, 2015). Geographic theory of crimes said that some people commit crimes because of they live in some specific area that have a lot of crimes or some poor area (Theories of the Causes of Crimes,2009). In those area, the percentage of criminal is more than in other area. Economic theory said that people may like the reward or profit of being criminal, their goal can be money, valuable stuff or power (Theories of the Causes of Crimes,2009). Some people are blind by the power of money, those people if can not control them self, they become criminals.
Radical criminology draws together the studies of interactionism, labelling, Marxism, critical criminology and gender which provide the understanding of youth crime from different perspective as discussed in the paper. This paper discusses the theories in radical criminology which contributes core understanding of the youth crime. Furthermore, the nature and extent of youth crime as well as the impact it had on the response of the criminal justice system is critically evaluated. Crime and Criminal Justice System According to McAra and McVie (2010) rupturing of any law and regulation is recognised as crime which may be minor as well as severe. It is said that the administration or establishments generally make laws and commandments that the people of the state
More broadly, Edwin Sutherland identified criminology as the study of law making, law breaking and the response to the law breaking. Criminology is the study of crime and criminals. But even this definition is of limited use – whilst we might recognize that criminals commit crime and criminologist study crime, what is needed today also, is the definition of crime to be understood, what criminology is?! Most dictionaries offer multiple definitions of the word ‘crime’, usually starting with the idea that it is a breach of criminal law, “an action or an instance of negligence that is deemed injurious to the public welfare or morals or to the interests of the state and is legally prohibited” Now the point is, as per the ancient perception towards criminology is that crimes are committed by human and committed against human and criminology is the study of the same defined aspects of crime. But gradually with time, the definition has undergone some modifications; now the definition of crime is broader in its approach and includes the contemporary concept of crimes against environment as well.