Criminological Theory Of Social Control

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8.Criminological theories 8.1.Social Control Theory In 1969 Hirschi developed a theory which could possibly explain why individuals who abide by the rules and values of society as well as maintain a connection with aspects such as family and school are less likely to engage in deviant activities (Walklate, 2011:85). According to Walklate (2011:85) the theory of social control includes four elements which could either strengthen or weaken social relationships which could lead to the causation or prevention deviant behaviour. Hirschi (2011:16-26) states that these elements include attachment, commitment, involvement as well as belief. Attachment refers to the interpersonal relationships as well as cultural and social norms of an individual. The attachment and individual has with others will determine the internalisation of conscience, norms and superego Hirshci (2011:20). According to Hirschi (2011: 20), attachment can be defined as the equivalent of the superego or conscience. The existence of the social element known as commitment averts an individual from disobeying social norms and commitment is also the equivalent to the ego (Ortiz, 2007:1). Ortiz (2007:1) is of the opinion that individuals will not disobey social norms if they fear the consequences of their actions. Involvement refers to the extent to which an individual is involved with what society refers to as conventional activities (Ortiz, 2007:1). Hirschi (2011:22) states that an individual who spends his or her
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