The myth of the given: This is an influential criticism made by Wilfrid Sellars. It is applicable to all types of foundationalism since the idea of the basic belief depends on the idea of the given. The argument runs in this way: the idea of the given in traditional epistemology contains irreconcilable tensions. Foundationalists want to make sure that basic beliefs do not involve any other beliefs. That is why they want the given to be untainted by the application of concepts.
The book that called Psychology & Christianity: Five Views by Johnson, one book that links between Christians with psychology. Firstly, the book will described the history of the influence of Christian in psychology. In this book they explain that the Christian and psychology has a big influence. The books that I read, is written by several authors. The author must write the view and their views on how Christians should practice psychology.
As stated, God has created all of nature and thus His truth should be able to be found through it. Because of this, Christians should also understand that knowledge gained from nature can be true even if it is not outlined in the Bible. As a sinful people discerning God’s truth from nature, it is necessary for there to be a lot of wisdom and self-reflection on the Christian’s part. In understanding psychology and theology, we as Christians must first understand intellectual humility. Entwistle said this about intellectual humility, “Humility as an intellectual virtue involves our recognition of our intellectual abilities and liabilities.
One has to look at other Theories before one can start finding answers, As suggested by Klein, Myers, 1999, interpretivism approach uses following principles, "The Fundamental Principle of the Hermeneutic Circle which refers to the philosophy of understanding and interpretation, The Principle of Contextualization, The Principle of Interaction between the Researchers and the Subjects, The Principle of Abstraction and Generalization, The Principle of Dialogical Reasoning, The Principle of Multiple Interpretations, The Principle of Suspicion". Phenomenology is used to explain world by directly experiencing the phenomena or Logic. Weber used directly or indirectly used four different methodological traditions referred in field of sociology are
He says that our claims about physical objects were justified in reference to such sensory experience. He also claims that the function of philosophy is to give ‘definitions in use’, showing how the sentences in which a symbol or type of symbol (“table”) occurs can be translated into equivalent sentences which don’t contain it or its synonyms. According to him, all propositions about material objects can be translated without loss into propositions about sense-data and therefore material objects are logical constructions. He doesn’t claim that material objects are constructed, made out, of sense data; but that propositions about material objects are in fact entirely concerned with features and relations of sense-data. I order to say that a material object exists is equivalent to say that certain sorts of sense data have been, are being, and would be experienced under certain conditions.
(Cornwall et al., 1986) proposed a tested model consisting of 3 components and 6 dimensions and combining previous findings in that area. First component is Cognition, which is the belief itself, religion’s “ideology” (Glock, Charles, 1962). It consists of two dimensions: one is Traditional orthodoxy – general, basic beliefs of the confession; another is Particularistic orthodoxy – set of beliefs which belong to a particular religious group (e.g., Protestant beliefs, in which they differ from Catholics). Second component is Affect: religious commitment, an emotion, focused on faith and religious values (Mol, 1977). It consists of Spiritual commitment (an affection towards transcendental features of the religion) and Church commitment (a feeling towards religion as a social institute).
Philosophers have long reflected on our ideas of perception and reality. Common sense beliefs about perception include that we directly perceive objects and that we perceive objects as they truly are. John Locke, an English philosopher of the 17th century, challenged both of these beliefs. In this paper, I will explain Locke’s reasoning against these beliefs by illustrating his arguments for the primary quality/secondary quality distinction, as well as the difference between primary and secondary qualities and between the quality and the idea of the quality. I will also raise an objection for one of these arguments, as presented in lecture.
Symbolic Interpretivists’ perspective on inequality Subjectivism is the element of Symbolic Interpretivists’ Ontology. (Heracleous 2004) Symbolic Interpretivists believed that reality is based on what is comply upon to be evident and essential and the agreeance on reality is created through social structure, where the assumptions can appear to be visible and natural. Symbolic Interpretivists’ epistemology is interpretivism (Cohen D & Crabtree B 2006), where they believed that truth is corresponding to time and place and the individuals who are involved in the process of constructing meaning for it. For example, organisations will only be ‘meaningful’ as they are being constructed or reconstructed by their employees through meaningful interaction with one another. In short, truth is discovered by what is being exposed through own feelings, thoughts and by allowing oneself to be shaped by context.
Many people have tried to separate the idea of worldview and education, particularly in public education, but it’s impact cannot be ignored. Controversy arises though through the implications of people’s worldviews when applied to educational policy and practice (Naugle 2005 p260). Dowson (2014 p40) examines the organisational perspective of an educational philosophy as critical to guiding the purpose and objectives of educational institutions. In Christian education, Wolterstorff (2004 p256) highlights the need for faith to engage with and shape the learning of students. This has had a significant impact on the educational policy development of Christian Schools.
The values and beliefs in religion are not questioned nor are they applied practically. It is taught in a theoretical manner, where the knowledge gained is not necessarily explained. All theoretical knowledge must explain why some affirmation is true. For example, in Islam, they say that it haram to kill animals and make them suffer, but it contradicts with the idea of the animals suffering in order to make the food halal. Even though, the knowledge gained by religion isn’t applied practically, it still affects an individual’s decisions.