Being polite is vital to successful communication, nowadays. In accordance with Oxford dictionary, politeness is defined as “good manners and respect for the feelings of others”, however, in the field of linguistics, the notion of politeness is further complex and regarded as one of the most key terms to define. Linguists advocated that “politeness is […] a dynamic concept, always open to adaptation and change in any group, in any age, and indeed, any moment of time. It is not a socio-anthropological given which can be simple applied to the analysis of social interaction, but actually arises out of that interaction” (Watts, 2003). Over decades, this concept has received various amount of attention from many linguists with a large number of books, research and articles concerning politeness have been published.
Politeness Politeness social position or status is enigmatic and controversial for some people who do not share the same culture and value. Our mind could blow just thinking and cracking this nebulous concept of politeness as if we are deciphering a message into every society worldwide to comprehend other cultures which considered as polite to them but not to us. Numerous studies have attempted to explain politeness, for example Brown and Levinson (1978) which stated politeness as the public self-image that every member wants to claim for himself. While, Mustafa Haji Daud (1995) cited politeness as “proper conversational language, refined speech, disciplined behavior, courtesy, well-behaved manner and good character.” Politeness is also a theory describing a proper social system, rules for speech and behavior (Brown, 2015). In other language, it means politeness can be either linguistics or actions taken by people based on the social system and rules applied in the society or culture.
They were also more likely to have helped someone or offered emotional support when required. Hence, it can be concluded that maintaining a gratitude journal has a number of benefits. In spite of the enumerable benefits of gratitude that has been mentioned above, it is an extremely difficult task to practise and inculcate. It requires a lot of motivation and discipline and requires the individual to do so in an authentic manner. Ultimately gratitude can be thought of as a mindfulness practise that leads to a greater experience of being connected to life.
Despite the fact that intercultural competence has different terminology when referring to disciple or approach, it can also relate to the debate about global citizenship. Intercultural competence is seen as the capability to develop an objective knowledge, attitude, and skills that prompt visible behavior and communication that are both successful and appropriate in intercultural interaction. In other words, intercultural competence is a range of different skills; cognitive, affective, and behavioral skills that lead to communicate effectively and suitable with different surrounding and culture. Intercultural competence can also be broken down into three constituent elements seen as knowledge, skills, and attitude. (Deardorff, 2006) With that being said, knowledge is my substantial weakness while skills and attitude are my strengths regarding intercultural competence.
Theory of politeness by Lakoff considers politeness is a universal thing (Terkourafi, n.d.). Further, Brown and Levinson (1978) gave the theory of politeness that drew for Goffman’s idea of face and more extended upon Lakoff’s standards for politeness. As stated by Brown and Levinson there are two sorts of face. Negative face which desire to express individual’s ideas without resistance and positive face which desire to have individual’s contributions approved of. These negative and positive faces reflect two different desires present in every communication
Hence, there is no ‘one truth’; representations are not pure reflections of reality, but rather cultural constructions. Every group, culture, society or community creates its own representation of what is to be seen as the ‘truth’. Existing dominant representations, however, call for the
Positive words like please, thank you, welcome, appreciate, agree, satisfactory, praise and so on, should be used. Courtesy Courtesy means a friendly and helpful behaviour towards others. Polite manners facilitate communications. Politenesses beget politeness and encourage participative communication. When a professional interacts with others in a formal communication set up, it is very important that the principle of courtesy to be followed at every step.
To make it broad, the volitional type is governed by one’s intention and realized by verbal strategies while the discernment type is operated by one’s discernment (or the socially prescribed norm) and is expressed by linguistic forms. He argues that Brown and Levinson’s model of politeness disregards the discernment type of politeness, which plays an important role in the Japanese linguistic politeness system. He also explains the differences between these two politeness
‘Positive politeness’ is expressed by satisfying ‘positive face’ in two ways: 1) by indicating similarities amongst interactants; or 2) by expressing an appreciation of the interlocutor’s self-image. The different types of positive politeness strategies are (e.g., noticing or attending to hearer, seeking agreement, avoiding disagreement). In Negative politeness the speaker minimizes the threat to the negative face to show respect and also not to show an imposition on the listener or it expresses respect and consideration, being pessimistic, minimizing the imposition and giving deference, are the examples of negative politeness strategies. (Brown & Levinson 1987,
Also it is noted that one of the problematic areas which need special attention in education is disagreement which has the potential of becoming aggravated if the interlocutors fail to manage it in polite way. Whereas there is a mutual agreement on the importance of politeness, there are still controversies on what politeness is and what does it entail. In the following section the two waves of politeness research and their weak points are being introduced. First Wave of Politeness Studies The first focused study on politeness was conducted by Lakoff (1972)and under influence of Grice’s maxim of "Be polite". She proposed two rules of "Be clear" and "Be polite".