GENDER: Gender is range of characteristics pertaining to and differentiating between masculinity and femininity. It is linked to socially constructed notion of masculinity and femininity, it is not necessarily a direct product of an individual’s biological sex. GENDER DISCRIMINATION: Gender discrimination means discrimination based on a person's gender or sex, which is very common in our society and it more often affects girls and women. Because of gender discrimination, girls and women do not have the same opportunities as boys and men for education, meaningful careers, political influence, and economic advancement. The society we are living in discriminate individual on the bases of one’s sex.
That is to say, the male and female employ gendered discourse strategies in passing their identities as men or woman which are congruent with the prevailing codes of gender. This is not to deny the fact that it is impossible for men and women to challenge, misbehave, or subvert the gender norms which are intensely entrenched in society, Peck(2000) and genders talk and differ in their discourse analyses the forms of speech, topics, intonation or grammatical features which make the language of men and women distinct. Explanations for the differences to point boys and girls as socially trained to behave as male or female. The differences seem to be linked to a different society, and women holding a disadvantageous role that is deficient or subordinate to
The definition of discrimination is observing people’s or a groups’ dissimilarities, holding main differences against these people or groups and making them exposed to judge and sexism, racism and other forms of discrimination in cultures can’t be eliminated without changing the culture itself.Like Charlotte Bunch 's quote "Sexual, racial, gender violance and other forms of dicrimination in culture can not be eliminated without changing culture." As I stated in its description, discrimination is the experience of bias which people can’t change and can’t choose. In our lives, women are unfortunately all being exposed to discrimination due to their gender. Simply being a man or a woman is changing the way that how a person is being treated by society and sadly, most of the time, the difference is extreme. There is only one question at this point that we are not able to answer yet: Why does sexual discrimination exist?
One of these perspectives is analyzing communication through gender. In the book, You Just Don’t Understand, Deborah Tannen (1990) popularized the term “genderlect” to describe the way in which men and women communicate with each other. She suggested that men and women have different styles of conversing, forming two distinct dialects. In a review of Tannen’s book, DeFrancisco (1992) attributed the differing communication styles of men and women to the respective cultures in which they grow up. Because of such gender differences, misunderstanding between men and women creates a gap in the communication process.
Hegemonic masculinity represses other types of masculinities through the mystification of the male body namely genitalia, as the embodiment of maleness, therefore cannot be achieved by those who do not possess this trait. Limiting hegemonic control to the normative and few subordinated. As Connell states, “The concept of masculinity is criticized for being framed within a heteronormative conception of gender that essentializes male-female difference and ignores difference and exclusion within the gender categories. The concept of masculinity is sad to rest logically on a dichotomization of sex (biological) versus gender (cultural) and thus marginalizes or naturalizes the body” (Connell 836). Its constant obsession of sex as the legitimization of essentialism and authenticity, not only limits the
This was evidenced by the separation from the girl that was the subject of the first conversation; she was crazy and this was a negative characteristic that they did not have. As Kimmel notes, one way to exaggerate your masculinity is by putting women down (Kimmel 136). While boys must be separate from girls in terms of characteristics, they are allowed to be close to them in terms of heterosexual relationships; when the mixed boy responded, “If you like her, you gotta like crazy, he confirms that only in the context of a romantic relationship would one deal with a girl’s
While feminist argues on the relativism that the attempt of relativist to protect the diversity of culture will just promote the dominance of male which has no sympathy to the well-being of women. Reitman concludes that human rights are made to prioritize a certain side. Supported by the study shows how certain countries have used the status of women to fulfill their political objectives. The third argument is both critiques have their own particular type of version in considerations of human rights. Feminist accuses the relativist by having male version of culture.
According to Romaine (1978) “The females are clearly more concerned with the pressure exerted by local norms and asserting their status with the social structure”. Men are allegedly more likely to behave in an aggressive manner and reject socially constraints especially when surrounded by all males, whereas women are more socially docile. However this explanation assumes that men’s speech behavior is normal and that that of women is abnormal, perhaps each gender should be seen as “dependent on the other, seeking a sexual identity in speech patterns whose essential characteristic is to be different from hose adopted by the opposite
This is also one of the concerns in feminist criticism. Writing from a male perspective, Defoe finds it impossible to write an essay specifically on women’s rights without an infiltration of misogynist elements. He clearly accepts feminism and yet is unable to express this acceptance with a male viewpoint without going back to the patriarchal ideals so prevalent in his society. He seems to be suggesting that not the patriarchal system is guilty for how women are seen in society, and they are, because their lack of courage and their weaknesses. Moll is not like this, she breaks the feminine characteristics and she creates her own.
Further Swallowe (2003) reviewed the literature on differences between men and women in the use of media for interpersonal communication, etc. Furthermore, Lakoff (1975) said that the speech of women is characterized by unique linguistic features such as specialized vocabulary, tag questions, intonation, hedges, and hypercorrect grammar. This