The DHA, committed to CDA, is interdisciplinary, problem-oriented, and analyses changes in discursive practices over time and in various genres. It attempts to integrate a large quantity of available knowledge about the historical sources and the background of the social and political fields in which discursive events are embedded. In addition, it analyses the historical dimension of discursive actions by exploring the ways in which particular genres of discourse are subject to diachronic change. In DHA, the analyst examines three dimensions of discursive events. First, he/she identifies the specific contents or topics of a specific discourse.
Furthermore, the ontology of this particular social theory is concerned with reality. Reality is thought of as an individual construct dependent to different situations while applied to hermeneutical phenomenological research. Hereafter, it is based on the belief that realities are multiple. In addition, we tackled on two important people who are important in hermeneutical phenomenology. These people were Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
It allows one to understand hoe the society fits together and the consequences that might arise when the community is affected by social change. Secondly, sociology enables one to develop a sense of appreciation for the diversities that are found in a set of people. It also develops the knowledge of an individual on a range of issues including human behavior, the social organization as well as culture. 6. Introduce one classical sociological
Validation, Marxist perspective evaluates the validity of factual claims or social realities basing on an ideology rather than empirical evidence Whereas Positivist evaluate factual validity of a social phenomenon basing on the statistical results. Positivist perspective focuses on facts Causalities and fundamental laws and a phenomenon is reduced to the simplest elements whereas Marxist perspective aims at understanding the meaning of events by exploring the totality of each individual case and draw conclusions. Marxist perspective considers small samples to make analysis in a greater depth or over longer period of time whereas positivist perspective captures bigger samples to make in depth analysis and draw conclusions on a given social
The third and the fourth tied the ideology with social powers and the imposing of one group’s power on other groups. The last two definitions stated that the ideology signifies the false and deceptive beliefs which arise from the material structure of the society and are beneficial for the ruling class. Although the list of definitions by Eagleton did not reduce the vagueness of the term ideology, it has attracted multiple authors from different fields of research to investigate ideology (Alaghbary, 2015). This paper will include several definitions which are related to Discourse Analysis. Stuart Hall (1986: 6) called ideology “the mental frameworks- languages, the concepts, categories, imagery of thought, and the systems of representation - which different classes and social groups deploy in order to make sense of, figure out and render intelligible the way society works”.
A Reflection on Critical Theories in Communication and Media: Critical Discourse of Empowerment (FMA 3b) Critical theory is useful in the study of communication and media with respect to the discourse of empowerment and the related concept of emancipation and political correctness and whose roots can be traced to Marxism as adapted by the Frankfurt school. Specifically, critical theory offers frameworks for analyzing the complexities and contradictions of marginalization and resistance in societies. According to Littlejohn and Foss (2009, p. 237), critical theory is not a theory proper but a set of complementary theoretical frames that examine structures of domination in society in order to open possibilities for the emancipation of people, meanings, and values. Further, that critical theory is primarily oriented towards people and critical theorists view social life and lived experience as the subject of inquiry for analysis and interpretation with the hope that they might find ways to shape societies to be more open and equitable for marginalized groups. At first, as a person trained in the scientific method, I would disagree that there exists “critical theories” that can assist us understand and explain communication and media phenomena but after the readings I realized that indeed there is a set of theories under the critical theory framework that are not only explanatory, as traditional theories are, but also emancipatory in nature.
The formation of social identities, ‘us’ and ‘them’, was seen as the key ingredient in group domination. Importantly, SIT goes beyond mere describing the status quo; it actively theorises strategies of resistance, ranging from redefinition of social identities to physical rebellion. The central argument of SIT is that change requires transformed relations between groups, not within individuals, and social change involves collective activity. This theory has some weaknesses in that it does not provide a sufficient account of ideology or of power, and it is inadequate in explaining gender- or class relations. Thirdly, the social dominance theory (SDT) is a general intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression.
This critical approach refers to a meta-theoretical approach with some assumptions of the interpretive approach of intercultural communication, but it focuses more on macro-contexts, such as the political and social structures that influence communication (Martin and Nakayama 67). By itself, interpretive approach refers to an intercultural communication approach that attempts to describe and understand human behavior within cultural groups based on these assumptions: human experience is subjective, human behavior is
Sociology can be defined as the systematic study of social behaviour and human groups. It mainly focuses on the influence of social relationships on people’s attitudes and behaviour and on how societies are established and how the change overtime . A popular debate in the foundation of the discipline has been whether it should be treated as natural science or as a social science. The issue led to the division of sociologists. Three major theoretical perspectives can be identified at the foundation of sociology.
Social constructionism starts by exploring the assumptions associated with the naming or labelling of things. (Clarke and Cochrane, 1998a, pp.26,30). Labelling can provide a useful understanding of social problems and how they are created. Social problems surface, if