Furthermore, the teaching narrative plays an important role in shaping the meaning-making process in the students by promoting shared meaning and checking whether students have understood what is being taught to them. It also contributes to maintaining the narrative being held by the teacher Mortimer and Scott). Scott (1997) has studied how teachers can use questions in the discourse to guide students through an explanation of the lesson. On the other hand, Halliday (1994) employs a different framework of discourse analysis called the systemic functional linguistic (SFL) model which studies the relationship between aspects of grammar and the meaning achieved by it. In specific terms, the SFL framework considers experiential metafunction, textual metafunction and interpersonal metafunction by analyzing the clauses used in the discourse for each of the three metafunctions of meaning.
It focuses on how learners process inputs and outputs (Robert Gagne) it is the internal mental organization of knowledge, where knowledge is stored in a person’s schemata. In cognitivism theory a better and faster learning can be achieved by constructing a learning environment that rein-forces different learning styles. It can be best taught through lectures, visual tools such as mind maps and charts to facilitate memorization for learning .cognitive focuses on higher mental thinking activities such a problem solving and decision making.it requires a person to use their minds and think outside the box, think of solutions .for example learners need to be actively involved in their learning and that is based on their prior knowledge and past experience. For example you need to visualize a picture of a person so that when you ask a “who” question you know that you’re talking about a person or living thing and that visual is going to remain in their minds making it easy for them to remember that “who” stands for a living thing or person. Cognitive stresses the acquisition of knowledge and internal mental structures.
Willingness to communicate which is new to individual differences research in SLA is connected with motivation. It is originally investigated in L1 Communication research, willingness to communicate pertains to the predisposition towards talkativeness that learners produce in the classroom and also potentially outside the classroom. As such it is the behavioral intent that can cause actual communicative behavior (MacIntyre, Clement, Dornei, & Noels, 1998). According to MacIntyre, Burns, and Jessome (2011), willingness to communicate approaches multiple dimensions for learner’s experiences. In the L2 classroom, not only task type and topic but also classroom interactional patterns, and interlocutors may affect learners’ willingness to communicate may be affected by (Cao, 2011).
This will certainly affect academic performance especially that ESL classrooms nowadays tend to be constructivist in nature. Schulte (1996) presents constructivism as a linguistic and educational viewpoint where students are enabled to come to learning situations with a variety of knowledge, feelings, and skills already within them. Learners construct understanding by making sense of their experiences and fitting their own ideas into reality. Similar to the schema theory, it would be hard to interpret a text if both word and world knowledge are
With the influence of technology rising in the field of second language (L2) learning and instruction, the motivational elements of gamification have resulted in gamification being considered in second language acquisition (SLA). Based on this, Flores (2015) in their article, Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning, which this paper seeks to review, sought to discuss the integration of gamification technology as an L2 instruction strategy and the progress already made in employing the strategy. By understanding the learner’s knowledge acquisition process, educators can develop the appropriate classroom techniques, methods and philosophy. In the case of L2 learning, it is necessary to understand the difference between first language
1.4 Significance of the Study The findings of the study will import the benefit of EFL teachers considering that complex sentence comprehension plays an important role in grasping the meaning and interpreting the text reading. The results of the study will be also useful to EFL teachers in providing teaching process to help their students improve linguistic competence in acquiring dependent clauses so that students will correctly comprehend and interpret complex sentence in text reading. 1.5 Scope and Delimitation This study is focus on acquiring full and reduced forms of dependent clauses; adverb clause, adjective or relative clause, and noun clause by applying explicit and implicit instruction. Moreover, the study is confined to comparing the significant difference of the effect on applying explicit and implicit instruction. This study is limited to 80 12th-grade students both male and female during the second semester of the academic year 2015 at Suraphinphitthaya School.
1. INTRODUCTION Teaching materials become one crucial aspect of the learning process. Besides being necessary support for teachers, teaching materials indirectly become the standard point for students to learn. The students see the teaching materials as their source of knowledge and reference base. Teaching materials also have an important role in English for Specific Purposes.
Norton mentioned that “social identity, investment and language learning drew on post structuralist theories of language and identity to offer new perspectives on language learning and teaching. In addition Block (2007a:864) notes that a post structuralist approach to identity has became the approach of choice among those who seek to explore lines between identity and language learning. The author has come up with new theories or study on identity and language learning in L2 learning. They have an assertion on Martina’s vignette by interconnecting identity and language learning researcher. The first theory is known as contemporary identity where its explainable on the second language acquisition.
First, grammar as an enabling skill, it views the grammar as a foundation to master skills or develop competency the all areas in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Second, grammar as motivator, it considers the grammar view that the grammar as strong element in language curriculum which makes students motivated to learn it, and also teachers has to motivate in teaching
Dieveloping reading comprehension ability is one of the most important aspects in acquisition of a language. The present investigation concentrated on enhancing reading comprehension ability through Task-based language teaching. Many educational domains are going through changes in the way teaching and learning is understood. Teacher centered classes and structural- syllabus teaching are giving way to a more student-centered, practical and flexible approaches. In this paradigm shift, the field of second and foreign language teaching is not an exception.