Critical theory: This paradigm shows that reality can be changed through human intervention and research. According to McCarthy, 1991, “Critical theory is a broad tradition based upon the use of the critique as a method of investigation”. This social theory whether worked in an educational research, literature, philosophy, art and business is very important to change the world’s view. It is a form of rationalism. Rationalism is a sort of thought in which a society thinks and transforms the environment.
Rhetorical analysis is an investigation into how someone uses his/her critical reading skills to analyze text. The objective of the rhetorical analysis is the study of how the author writes, instead of what the author wrote. At that point, we need to examine the method that the author uses to attain his goal. According to Jonah G. Willihnganz “A rhetorical analysis is an examination of how a text persuades us of its point of view. It focuses on identifying and investigating the way a text communicates, what strategies it employs to connect to an audience, frame an issue, establish its stakes, make a particular claim, support it, and persuade the audience to accept the claim”.
By perception he called ‘’everything that can be presented by brain, do we use our sensory organs or exhibit our thought and reflection.’’ He divided perceptions into two kinds: impressions and ideas. Impressions-are ‘’those impressions that enter your mind with the most power.’’ They consist of images, affects and emotions. Ideas though are weak and dull perceptions because they are organized from speculations about some feelings or about objects that do not exist at all. Moreover, Hume notices that ‘’all our ideas, or weak perceptions, infer from our impressions, or powerful perceptions, and we can not think about anything that we have never seen before or have not felt it in our own brain.’’ Next step in an exploring the process of human understanding is analysis of ‘’principle of different thought’s connections, ideas of our reason.’’ By that principle, he calls the principle of association. Hume highlights three laws of association of ideas: resemblance, adjacency in time or space and causality.
The researcher also needs supporting data to analyze the novel therefore; the researcher uses previous researches and books related to the thesis. The researcher has to read about deconstruction and absurdism as philosophical and literary approaches, which depends on postmodernism in order to analyze the novel. There are some available books in the culture of these theories such as Deconstruction as narrative interruption by James Gilbert Walsh, The absurd in Literature by Neil Cornwell, Double Reading: Postmodernism after Deconstruction by Jeffrey T. Nealon, and Postmodern Literature by Ian Gregson. As Kafka is interested in writing about absurdity of existentialism, books like Kafka and his Precursors by Jorge Luis Borges, and Kafka's Jewish Language: The Hidden Openness of Tradition by David Suchoff, and Kafka: A Guide for the Perplexed by Clayton Koelb are helpful. The sources related to Franz Kafka are variable because most of critics see that Kafka is a postmodern writer who tries to bring out all what related to the social and political conflict as well as stating the idea of free play inside the language from a postmodern perspective.
t: In his article, "Cultural Studies and Cultural Text Analysis," Urpo Kovala discusses the role of textual analysis in cultural studies. He begins with a sketch of different conceptions of textual analysis within cultural studies by pointing to differences in the concepts of text and context themselves. Next, Kovala explores the reasons for including textual analysis as a category and method in cultural studies and in humanities and social sciences scholarship generally. Finally, Kovala sketches briefly a model for the cultural analysis of text where his main point is that the argument about the incompatibility of cultural studies and textual analysis is untenable today. Instead, what is needed now is a heterological, multi-level, and perspectival notion of both text and context.
Paradigms are ways of perceiving the world in terms of both the problems that can be addressed and the evidence that may have a bearing on their solution, says, Margherita Ulrych, a translation scholar. He continues, when the existing paradigm accumulated so many defects that it essentially becomes untenable, the paradigm is challenged and replaced by new ways of perceiving the world. Translation studies also witness profound paradigm shifts in recent years along with literature, linguistics, social studies, cultural studies etc. This shift is from strictly comparing the original source text with the target text to descriptive translation studies, where many fundamental issues pertaining to historical, social and cultural compulsions which
Reader response criticism is a literary critical theory. It is promoted and developed by a variety of literary theorists and critics. Depending on the person advancing the concept, the theory may take on any number of nuanced meanings. Generally speaking however, reader response criticism suggests that a text gains meaning by the purposeful act of a reader’s reading and interpreting it. The relationship between reader and text is highly valued; text does not exist without a reader.
Critical discourse analysis is an interdisciplinary methodology to the investigation of talk that perspectives dialect as an issue of social practice and concentrates on the ways social and political command are repeated in content and talk. This approach presents a occupied study of text that influence social beliefs, values and expectation. It shows how different text affect the public point of view in different life area such as in political issues, social issues and universal issues . This essay will present a full (CDA) analysis of two news article's texts including the same political topic but from different sources. The CDA analysis start by investigating the different perspective, attitude and position the occur in the two text but
Social structures area unit quite necessary in analysis, which can be assumed or compete out at intervals the spoken language or text. It issues the kinds of tools and methods individuals use once they area unit engaged in any style of communication, like swiftness one's speech for stress, use of metaphors, and selection of explicit words to show have an effect on, and so on. Discourse analysis includes a mix of inter discursive analysis of texts (i.e. of however completely different genres, discourses and designs area unit articulated together) and linguistic and different styles of philosophical doctrine
Whereas discourse analysis is widely used for the study to the usage of language in texts and its contextual meanings. It is quite a general term for a many of approaches to analyze written,spoken,vocal, sign language and the purpose of discourse analysis is to reveal some hidden or out of sight or unseen, unknown meaning of text that can be written or spoken. Critical discourse analysis explores the connection between use of language and social and