The first strand that will be discussed will be that of Liberal feminism which focuses on the issues of gender equality. This theory has influenced the breeding of social activists whose main concern has been conceived as to protect and mend the political and social freedom of life. This has transcended to waging legal and political clashes against gender based violence on a domestic level among others. Feminist political philosophers have enlightened the distinct separation of domestic and public and their influence on maintaining patriarchal domination of women. The domestic setup such as the family has provided for this type of notion, given the roles of bearing children and being caregivers in the household (McAfee, 2014).
1.3.3 Second Wave Feminism Second Wave Feminism is more radical in its thought and formation. Apart from blaming the institutions, it attacks the basic meanings of ‘man’ and ‘woman’. Second Wave Feminists focused on a broad range of issues in the 1960s, 70s and early 80 are including discrimination in workplaces and in broader society. Some of the key struggles were around affirmative action, pay equity, rape, domestic violence, pornography and sexism in the media, and reproductive choice. The fight for reproductive choice included a fight to have information about, and access to, birth control (selling or promoting birth control was illegal in Canada until 1969) as well as the struggle to decriminalize abortion.
American history repeatedly contradicts itself by placing superior value on certain groups more than others. Intersectional Feminism is the understanding of how women’s overlapping identities--including race, class, ethnicity, religion, and sexual orientation--impact the way they experience oppression and discrimination. Anyone who possesses identity privilege share a difficult time including feminism for women who cannot determine which identities are in most dire need of liberation from inequality. Without intersectionality, feminism is only an academic jargon disconnected from the real world. Consequently, the concept White Feminism allows the further exclusion of issues that specifically affect women of color.
In other words, feminism describes a culture in which women, because they are women, are treated differently than men, and that, in that difference of treatment, women are at disadvantage; feminism assumes that such treatment is cultural and thus possible to change and not simply “the way the world is and must be”; feminism looks to a different culture as possible, and values moving towards that culture; and feminism consist of activism, individually and in groups, to make personal and social change towards that more desirable culture. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott spearheaded the women’s Right convention in Seneca Falls, NY in 1848. The convention brought in more than 300 people. The discussion was focused on the social, civil, and religious condition of women. Their claim was that all people are created equal and should not be denied equality of opportunity because of gender.
It is also a prerequisite for developing effective strategies to liberate women and identifies the underlying causes of women’s subordination. Dr. Rosemarie Tong a distinguished Professor of Health Care Ethics in the Department of Philosophy, suggests that feminist theory attempts to describe women’s oppression, to explain its causes and consequences, and to prescribe strategies for women’s liberation. In “Women Do Theory,” Jane Flax, a professor in the department of political science, suggests that theory is a systematic, analytic approach to everyday experience. Flax argues that everybody does this unconsciously and that to theorize is to bring this unconscious process to a conscious level so that it can be developed and refined. According to Flax, feminist theory seeks to understand the power differential between men and women, seeks to understand women’s oppression—how it evolved, how it changes over time, how it is related to other forms of oppression and how to overcome these oppressions.
While First Wave feminism emerges in the nineteenth-century, fighting for women’s rights by advocating for equal economic, educational and political opportunities, Second Wave feminism arises in the 1960s maintaining the idea that “the personal is political.” Second wavers such as Betty Friedan and Kate Millet react against the discursive practices of the patriarchal society, which subjugate women. However, looking at mainstream feminism in contemporary Western societies, Mary Hawkesworth observes that “a strange phenomenon has accompanied the unprecedented growth of feminist activism around the globe: the recurrent pronouncement of feminism’s death” (qtd. in Rachel Blau DuPlessis and Ann Snitow xi). In the 1990s, a younger generation of feminist
Feminist literary criticism is a direct product of the 1960s ‘women’s movement’, recognising the ‘significance of the images of women that are promulgated by literature’ (Barry, 116). Feminist critics see it as vital to challenge such portrayals – particularly in relation to aspects of ‘conditioning’ and ‘socialisation’, and what is considered an ‘acceptable version of the ‘feminine’ (Barry, 117). Gilbert and Gubar’s “A Dialogue of Self and Soul: Plain Jane’s Progress” offers a provocative critique, employing the character of Bertha Mason and her entrapment in the attic at Thornfield as an emblematic approach to the repression of omnipresent patriarchal standards of Victorian Society. Portrayed as the ‘truest and darkest double’ (360) to the novel’s protagonist, Bertha becomes a manifestation the thoughts and feelings that Jane feels she must subdue.
Discuss the ways in which Rosario Castellanos challenges and subverts gender stereotypes in her work? In this essay I am going to examine and discuss the work of one of Mexico’s most important literary figures, Rosario Castellanos, with particular emphasis on her feministic beliefs and the ways in which she used her writing to catapult her views into the forefront of society. Her writing reflects bitterness regarding the desires and misfortunes of the female population of her nation. Castellanos used poetry, novels and plays as a platform to voice the many inequalities that she deemed prevalent in society at that time. She committed to writing as a mechanism for social change.
(dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/feminism). Another meaning, feminism is a range of movements and ideologies that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism According to Erica Dien in his Journal published on Thursday, February 28, 2008, Feminism has been misinterpreted by society to represent masculine women who hold no respect for men. Feminism, however, can be defined as: “a concern with action, political or personal, the struggle for equality; valuing the individual, respect for the individual; and having an awareness or consciousness of oppression which may be experienced by women directly or men vicariously through women’s experiences” (Allan, 1993).
Feminism, Misandry, Sexism and Patriarchy The word ‘feminist ‘ to me means a person, not generally a woman, who fights for women and their rights, it means that a person wants equality for both men and women Feminism started out as a movement which helped women gain rights. It was a social, political movement and it helped women win the right to vote, and so it helped decrease the wage gap at work, it helped women take maternity leave from work. Feminism helped women gain rights to work as judges, it inspired popular figures to speak about it, it helped women fight against the crimes and abuse etc. It was empowering and liberating when it made women realize that only they could control their lives, what they chose to work as, what they chose to wear. Sometimes feminists used