When π is negative, activity decreases with hydrophobicity. You want substituents therefore that are very hydrophilic When π is positive, activity increases with hydrophobicity. You want substituents therefore that are very hydrophobic • σ is the Hammett constant discussed above; a measure of the electronic effect of substituents When σ is positive, electron-withdrawing substituents add to activity When σ is negative, electron-donating substituents add to activity References
The mixture will be place in separatory funnel enabling separation of one layer from the other—the lower, denser layer can be drained out of the bottom of the separatory funnel, leaving behind the upper layer.
Title: Diffusion & Osmosis Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to test the tonicity of the different solutions. Background: Diffusion and osmosis are both processes that occur within the plasma membrane. Diffusion is the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of kinetic energy. Osmosis is the movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane. Tonicity is also related to osmosis.
Hypothesis: If one-day pinto bean seedlings are soaked in a water solution, 1% NaCl solution, and 3% NaCl solution, the seedlings exposed to higher sodium concentrations will have decreased cellular respiration rates. Treatments: This experiment involved three treatments and a control. The goal of the experiment was to see how different levels of NaCl affect the rates of cellular respiration in day-old pinto bean seedlings.
Water purification by using nanomembranes can provide solution to their problem. DISCUSSION Desalination processes that are mostly being used for water purification includes Reverse Osmosis, and filtration through nanomembranes. Both these processes use pressure driven membrane technology which is employed at various configurations. Reverse Osmosis Pressure is used to drive the water through the membrane, leaving the salt behind.
In this experiment, the amount of water lost in the 0.99 gram sample of hydrated salt was 0.35 grams, meaning that 35.4% of the salt’s mass was water. The unknown salt’s percent water is closest to that of Copper (II) Sulfate Pentahydrate, or CuSO4 ⋅ 5H2O. The percent error from the accepted percent water in CuSO4 ⋅ 5H2O is 1.67%, since the calculated value came out to be 0.6 less than the accepted value of 36.0%.This lab may have had some issues or sources of error, including the possibility of insufficient heating, meaning that some water may not have evaporated, that the scale was uncalibrated, or that the evaporating dish was still hot while being measured. This would have resulted in convection currents pushing up on the plate and making it seem lighter by lifting it up
Starlings forces are the farces that control fluid filtration across the capillaries in the human body and can be described by the equation Jvol = Kf [(Pcap – Pint) – (cap – int)]. Starling’s forces are comprised of two major forces, the Hydrostatic force, or force generated by the fluid in the capillary or interstitial space, or the oncotic force, the force generated by proteins in the interstitial fluid or capillary.
The lowest aging index was found to be at 2% by weight of the binder. At this percentage, the decrease in long term aging index came out to be 30%. Hydrated lime was also tested with 67 - 22 binder. The greatest decrease in aging was found to be at 2% and 3% hydrated lime which is around 14%. The results can be seen in table 2.
=O stretch and 1157 cm-1 correspond to the C-O stretch. These peaks were absence in its sodium salt spectrum. The thermogram of DFA measured by DTA is also displayed in Fig. 2, which shows the endotherm curve of melting at 173.8 °C, similar with the base-drug property (Barbato et al., 2003).
it is also used as antibiotics or on stomach human exposure of Bismuth levels are in sea water and few in fresh water "Reported bismuth concentrations vary from 10 to 30 ng/L in seawater and from a few ng to a few µg/L in freshwater" it levels in food are low" ranging from 0.1 to 1 µg/kg. " . however the exposure to Bismuth through food and water is likely to be little , and the cases of intoxication derive only from the use of the medicinal product ".Dietary intake in the UK has been estimated as 0.4–0.7
The beginning reaction that occurred at the pH level of 1 shows that the mean reaction rate was incredibly low, at 2 mL/minute. This then increased by 57 units once it reached its peak productivity of 59 mL/minute observed at pH 8. pH levels 6, 7, and 8 only varied between 1 and 2 mL/minute, which demonstrated similar rates of reaction. At pH 10, the reaction rate decreased considerably as it declined by 58 mL/minute, and maintained that productivity at pH 12.
The purpose of this experiment was to learn about metal hydride reduction reactions. Therefore, the sodium borohydride reduction of the ketone, 9-fluorenone was performed to yield the secondary alcohol, 9-fluorenol. Reduction of an organic molecule usually corresponds to decreasing its oxygen content or increasing its hydrogen content. In order to achieve such a chemical change, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is used as a reducing agent. There are other metal hydrides used in the reduction of carbonyl groups such as lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4).