As first introduces by Wood et al. (1979), the term “scaffolding” as a metaphor to capture the nature of guidance and support in learning. They use it to describe the nature of parent tutoring in the language development of young children. The result showed that parent who using scaffolding successfully focused in their children’s attention on the task on hand, and keep children motivated and working on the task. (Jenifer Hamond 2001) Parents give support by modelling or divided the task into manageable components and keep the task at an appropriate level of difficulty.
Proponents of collaborative or cooperative learning include Thayer-Bacon (2000), who emphasizes the importance of students’ relationships with others in budding critical thinking skills. Heyman (2008), notes that social experiences can form children’s reasoning about the credibility of claims. Lai, E. (2011) stated that collaborations generate opportunities for disagreements and misconceptions to surface and to be
Andrade &Valtcheva (2009,12) define self-assessment as a process during which students assess their own performance or progress; compare it to clearly stated criteria, objectives, or standards; and revise accordingly. Teacher and parents can help students develop their understanding of learning objectives and successes criteria. The educational benefits of student self-assessment are recognized and its use is increasing gradually (Andrade &Valtcheva2009, 12.) The goals of self-assessment are numerous and the assessment process can affect the whole school organization, teachers and the students. ADEC’s pedagogical approach in the NSM includes a requirement for children to be encouraged to reflect on their learning which is essential for SE.
The education system is based on recognizing a child’s uniqueness and to exposure children with their abilities. The philosophy was based on four major principles: free self-expression, creativity, social participation and motor expression. The preparation focused on the needs of children before entering school. The direction of Frobel’s educational ideas can still be observed in preschool today learning through play, group games, and goal orientated activities, and outdoor time. Woods and Attfield (2005) explains that Frobel’s concepts was based on the “first hand experiences and self-chosen activities” which occurred on his beliefs that adults should sensitively intervene in children’s play.
Müller ,et al. (2010) indicate that interactive digital storytelling helps teachers to use role-playing methods in classroom. Students can develop and test dialogues that are correctly spoken out and enacted. It fosters thinking in alternatives and functional equivalences, and provides a means for self-directed learning. In addition, Frazel (2010) summarizes the value of digital storytelling
From a sociocultural perspective, the role of the teacher is significant in the enhancement of productive collaboration processes (Hämäläinen & Vähäsantanen, 2011). Through interaction and feedback, students learn from each other and help each other to improve on the quality of ideas during the construction and re-construction of knowledge (Looi et al., 2010). Decades of research illustrate the benefits of inquiry-based and cooperative learning to help students develop the knowledge and skills necessary to be successful in a rapidly changing world (Barron & Darling-Hammond, 2008). Teachers should create classroom environments to meet individual students’ interests and needs, design curriculum to ensure open-ended activities, and utilize real-life contexts for assessing and reporting learning outcomes. These strategies help students not only become more versed in creative thinking, but also situate them in an environment that fosters creativity (Hong et al.,2009).
The children experience the cooperative learning. In cooperative learning through active participation in interactions between the group members, children solve problems while benefiting from the insights of others (Hoffnung et al., 2013). Then the teacher gave them an individual task to complete. Children have the option to choose a worksheet, or an I pad to complete their task. Most schools use technology as an educational tool that helps children to grow their knowledge.
The ‘Third space’, is seen as a collaborative Zone of Proximal Development where students could achieve a stronger sense of identity, and an understanding of appropriate and important forms of participation (Duff, 2004). The potential conflict between teacher’s formal language and academic knowledge, known as the ‘mainstream script’ and the students’ ‘counterscript’ constituting vernacular language and experience out of school, could become a source of innovation, where students are able to use their own language and everyday knowledge to engage with curriculum material and discourse (Gutiérrez,
There is a link of family, culture, and community in the teaching and learning of social studies.Its main concern is preparing children who are equipped with the knowledge and skills to be active efficient participants in the society.children are thought history so the can know where they are coming from and where they are going.The ultimate destination of any child should be to become a citizen participating in voting,running for public office,solving community orntionat problems by be comming members of a club ,or other non-govermental body. The curricula of social studies use big ideas to connect with children and deepen their understanding of the social world.Educators and politicians soon have to wake up to the fact that social studies are basic and fundamental in the earliest schooling. Children simply are not likely to improve their learning attitudes. There simply has to be more attention given to help children learn about themselves and their place in and responsibility to society. An intigated teaching strategies include individual investigations in the library, in the field of social studies , and on the Internet;
They are turning around their approach into a focus on creating positive school climate and responsive classroom as part of holistic quality education based on child rights where there is effective teaching and classroom management, thus enhancing students’ learning experiences. The motivational psychology researchers discovered several useful approaches and practices that can be implemented in the classroom for effective learning to take place (Miller, 2012). Teachers are using differentiation to support teaching and learning. Differentiation can vary in pace, activities, resources, teaching and learning styles in an attempt to best meet the needs of individual student. Various teaching strategies such as cooperative learning, active learning, role play and games and pedagogic tools are being integrated in educational theories in meaningful and useful ways to encourage task or learning achievements.