Critical Thinking Definition

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Critical Thinking
Since critical thinking is a complicated concept, there are different definitions concerning its various aspects. The first definition may be that given by Dewey (1909, as cited in Fahim & Pezeshki, 2012), father of the new tradition in critical thinking, who first called this notion “reflective thinking” and defined it precisely as an “active, persistent, careful consideration of a belief or supposed form of knowledge in the lights of grounds which support it and the further conclusions to which it tends” (p. 154). Alternatively, Glaser (1942) a psychologist, defines critical thinking as an attitude and rational use of skills in problem-solving contexts. Siegel (1988, as cited in Liaw, 2007, p.50) calls critical thinking
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For example, Atkinson (1997) points out there are variety of definitions of critical thinking that differ to some degree. In like manner, Davidson (1998) argues that it is easy to notice large areas of overlap in these definitions. They are just paraphrases of the same idea. They simply link critical thinking to rational judgment. However, Paul (1990) criticized these definitions, since he believes that these definitions rely on concepts such as reasonableness or reflectivity that are not defined well. Elder and Paul (1994) assert that critical thinking is the ability of thinkers to take control of their own thinking and develop logical criteria and standards for analyzing and evaluating their own thinking. “These definitions emphasize the metacognitive aspect of critical thinking, independent thinking, and the importance of learning to assess thinking (your own or someone else’s) according to normative standards” (Reed, 1998, p.19).
Some researchers believe that the origin of these differences has rested in the various theories and models in two distinct disciplines: philosophy and psychology study. Reed (1998) claims that philosophers have focused on the nature and quality of the products and outcome of critical thinking. Psychologists, on the other hand, have concentrated on the process of cognition. Further, in order to reach
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So, higher-order thinking skills promote higher order learning skills and higher levels of language proficiency for students (Renner, 1996). Some studies have been conducted to show the importance of critical thinking on language learning and find the relationship between critical thinking and language skills (writing, reading, listening and speaking) and proficiency(Abdul Rashid, 2008; Alagozlu, 2007; Barnawi, 2010; Birjandi & Bagherkazemi, 2010; Fahim & ahmadi, 2012; Fahim, Bagherkazemi & Alemi, 2010; Ghanizadeh & Mirzaee , 2012 ; Hashemi & Zabihi, 2012; Liaw, 2007
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