Many kinds of faulty logic or perception interfere with our ability to think critically, for example, superstition, argument from ignorance, false analogies, irrelevant comparison and fallacies. Therefore, I believe that perception is certainly not reality and most mistakes in thinking are inadequacies of perception rather than mistakes of logics. Perception is defined as the ability to see, hear or becomes aware of something through the senses (Nature of Logic and Perception). However, since the senses are susceptible to personal interpretation, they are therefore potentially unreliable sources of data. If one is able of rationally thinking through the information that they perceive, then they are more likely to make accurate assumptions.
Some modern critical theorists believe that it is the way we see things that is the cause of our power or powerlessness. The System Theory, the first thing of note is that system theory sees things as wholes. It does not believe that one would understand something better by splitting it up into parts. Modern systems theory is based on the idea that all share the same concepts. (Higgs, 2015)
One of the main concepts of this paper is intellectualism. Intellectualism is characterized by two spheres; one of intellect and the other intelligence. Although these words are similar in origin and appearance, it is only when they are examined internally that the difference is made known. The article, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life by Richard Hofstadter (1963) explains, “Intelligence is an excellence of mind that is employed within a fairly narrow, immediate and predictable range... Intelligence works within the framework of limited but clearly stated goals, and may be quick to shear away questions of thought that do not seem to help in reaching them.
Thought Paper In the essay “Thought” Sullivan discusses his ideas of creative thinking. He begins by criticizing the use of words, versus images. Then he carries on with explaining, certain methods one for it disables the individual to come up with unique and original thoughts. His philosophy of thinking creatively focusses on visual perspective taken and to be taken place only in the present.
Once the basic needs are fulfilled, they become motivated to pursue higher level needs. Carl Roger is one of the founders of humanistic psychology. He strongly believed in the power of free will and self-determination. The roots of third force movement were found in philosophical speculation and literary works, which represents a sort of wishful thinking that is not factually correct.
Descartes’ Rationalism vs Locke’s Empiricism John Locke and René Descartes were both seventeenth-century philosophers. They are considered to be some of the first modern philosophers. Locke and Descartes both sought to better understand and define the idea of self, seen in the debate between mind and body. Along with that, they sought to define the knowledge and where one acquires knowledge.
Indeed, they developed distinctive and essential theories because they deficient in agreement as to the nature of humanity, and because each viewed personality from an mortal reference point point in time . According to Erikson, the inner self creates as it effectively settle emergencies that are particularly social in nature. These include building up a feeling of trust , building up a feeling of character in the public , and helping the cutting edge plan for futurity . Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was a humanistic therapist who concurred with the principle suppositions of Abraham Maslow, yet added that for a man to "develop", they require a situation that furnishes them with validity (openness and self-revelation), acknowledgment (being seen with unlimited positive respect), and compassion (being listened to and caught on).
However, even though these are two opposing philosophies, with very different ideas governing their conclusions, we should look to learn from both and apply the knowledge we identify with, thus creating our own philosophies. In this essay I wish to do exactly that; to compare and contrast these two ideologies in order to better understand them and help others do the same. First we must understand what is Deontology. The word deontology when broken down to its roots literally means, the study of the nature of duty and obligation.
This essay will discuss the central tenets of the trait theories and give a description of what each theory entails drawing from different theorists perspectives. One theory will be chosen and applied to a specific character and then a profile will be built on the character chosen based on the theory to which he or she fits in. 1. The trait approaches and their theorists 1.1. Carl Jung- extroversion and introversion Carl Jung is one of the theorists that assisted in the launch of trait approaches.
Rationalism and empiricism are two methods that can be understood under the concept of epistemology, psychology and philosophy of psychology to understand where the source of knowledge comes from. “In psychology and its philosophy, empiricism and rationalism concern the sources of psychological states and capacities that may include, but are not confined to, state of knowledge (Longworth, 2009).” Rationalism states a priori knowledge, deduction and the concept of an active mind. According to rationalist, our minds have innate set of principles and skills. If we only use our logic in accordance with these principles is enough to obtain accurate information about all the objects that make up the universe.
Nagel contributes to the mind-body dualism by posing challenges to faulty reductive theories by discussing the importance of the consideration of subjectivity. He is entitled to the assumptions he makes because reductionism overlooks the gap between the subjective and the objective. Further exploring such gap can signify the creation of new methods that invoke the objective as well as the subjective. As of now the call for innovative approaches to understand the consciousness are essential to better understand our species and others
Critical thinking is the idea of analyzing, evaluating and rationalizing issues, concepts, problems, and purpose. Critical thinking is not only utilized in workplaces, but we also use this skill in our day to day life even if we do not realize it. There were times where critically thinking has helped me on many occasion in my personal life. About a few weeks ago, I moved in with two of my friends in an apartment. Unfortunately, a day before I had moved in, it had snowed heavily covering my parking stall, so I parked in my neighbor's stall by accident.