Critical Thinking Skills And Strategies In The Learning Process

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One of the significant 21st century skills is critical thinking (CT), which is a term defined by many educators and researchers. Ennis (1985) gave a simple and intangible definition of CT as “reflective and reasonable thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do”, (p. 45). According to Ennis (1985) critical thinking covers the practical side of higher order thinking which is deciding what to believe or to do (as cited in Faravani & Atai, 2015). Facion (1998) defined CT in a slightly more complex way and stated that critical thinking is thinking that has a purpose while doing some tasks, for examples, when someone is proving a fact or idea, interpreting what something means or solving a problem. However, Halpern (2007) believed that Critical thinking is beyond one 's own thinking or making judgments and solving problems by pointing out that it is using skills and strategies that will make desirable outcomes. Halpern (2007) considered critical thinking skills the same as higher order thinking skills and used them interchangeably. The important role of critical thinking in the learning process is not a new issue in language learning and skills. In fact, it has long been addressed by old theorists and educators. For example, Piaget (1971) and Vygotsky (1962) confirmed there are close relationships between language and thinking skills (as cited in Faravani & Atai, 2015). CT has been noticed for some decades, and more recently, it has been identified as one

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