Criticism And Kant In Silber's Critique Of Moralization

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moral concerns and specifically stresses the concept of treating humanity not merely as means but as ends. However, Silber, like most Kantian formalists denies the possibility of supplementing C2. In Silber’s view, C2 as a limiting condition on valid maxims expresses merely a negative condition that one never treats others as means. Kant also explained that C2 acts solely as a limiting condition.

In the idea of an absolutely good will [one] good without any qualifying condition (of attainment of this or that end)—complete abstraction must be made from every end that has to come about as an effect…And so the end must here be conceived, not as an end to be effected, but as an independently existing end. Hence it must be conceived only negatively, i.e., as an end which should never be acted against (Gr 437).

Silber, therefore, recommends that we would be better served by eliminating C2:

It is regrettable that Kant did not think to express this formulation in terms of his second maxim of common human understanding: rather than write about treating mankind as an end in itself. Kant should have written about putting oneself in thought in the place and point of view of others (Silber 15).

The context for understanding Silber’s comments is found in the Critique of Judgment (KU 295) when he writes, ‘The agent can only determine a universal standpoint formulated by shifting one’s standpoint to the others.’ Thus Silber relies upon the principle of perspective-exchange instead of

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