Orientalism is the study of the Orient (previously India and Bible land until the early nineteenth century) or the East by Westerners which portray them (Orients) as if they are different from the West (Said E. 1977 : 1). That difference portrays the (Orients) as inferior from the Westerners putting images of the East as exotic, undeveloped, problematic, uncivilised and treating the people as subjects. Orientalism perpetuates Western dominance. (Said E. 1977 : 3) Orientalism is “thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between the “orient” and (most of the time) “the Occident.” (Said E. 1977 : 2). Orientalism leads to othering which is simply portraying the Orients as ‘others’ and as something different from the Westerners.
With the publication of Orientalism in 1978, Edward Said hugely influenced scholarly debates about the Middle-East and the perception of the West. In 2007, Daniel Martin Varisco presented an in-depth, critical reflection of Said’s book Orientalism in Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid. Varisco does this by analyzing supporters as well as opponents of Said’s book about orientalism. Varisco’s reasoning for writing the book was not because he necessarily disagreed with what Said argues, it is rather that Varisco thought Said’s points could be better argued with the right evidence. When Said published Orientalism in 1978, the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle-East received large attention in the Western media coverage.
Critique of clash of civilization WVLS 313 17-Apr-15 N .MKIZE 23684879 The theory of clash of civilization The clash of civilization is a theory by Samuel Huntington which states that peoples cultural and religion identities are the root source of conflict in the post-cold war. Clash of civilization is a theory referencing the clash of cultures ( Choeung.slide share).according to Huntington ( 1996,p84) “the most pervasive, important, and dangerous conflicts will not be between social classes, rich, poor, or other economically defined groups, but between peoples belonging to different cultural entities” . Huntington also states that conflicts between civilizations are likely to be caused by religious means. And this is to the fact that civilizations are distinguished from other culture through history, language, culture and most important religion (Huntington, 1993, 25). Huntington states that people’s culture and religion will be the main cause of conflict from onward.
He says that in small part thanks to new electronic media, ranging from film to television, standardization and stereotyping of the orient has intensified the 19th century’s orientalist understanding of “the mysterious Orient.” He gives the primary example of the Middle East and the Western perception of Arabs and Islam. Of three chief reasons he gives for the growth of this problem, at least two can be directly attributed to orientalism. The first is the history of anti-Arab and anti-Islamic prejudices prevalent in the West, the third is the absence of a cultural position to identify Arabs or Islam. By creating an other, through the dichotomy between occident and orient, identification has been made near impossible, and by furthering a imperialist ideology through academic discourse for centuries, prejudices have become
According to Arendt, totalitarian ideology traces its roots mainly in imperialism and anti-Semitism. To prove her theories, she intends to trace the thinking process itself in these societies which lead to establishment of such regimes. She identifies racism and bureaucracy as the "two main political devices" of imperialism. (H Arendt - 1950, pp.185) She states that there is an correlation between racial hostility and class antagonism, but she sees neither racism nor anti-Semitism as an underlying cause of totalitarianism. The disintegration of nation states after the First World War which were governed by law and cultural ties was now taken over by issues of race and religion.
As Professor Sut Jhally said in the video, Edward Said on Orientalism, according to Said, "...The way the West, Europe and the U.S., looks at the countries and people of the Middle East, is through a lens that distorts the actual reality of those places and those people." This is very similar to the way in which colonial powers viewed the places they overpowered. However,
This shared technique of colonial discourse is known as the “partial representation,” which is utilized to maintain imperial position over the colonies. In Orientalism, Said believes that the Orientalist viewpoint created certain images about the Orientals, which usually hold negative features based on the binary opposition between the West and the East. These generalized images hardly embrace the wide range of diversity and only represent partial aspects of Eastern culture. This process of representation may lead to “cultural stereotyping,” infusing misconceptions into people’s understanding and beliefs about the Orient and enabling the Westerners to remain in the dominant position over the Orientals (Said
The Kant’s caution is that the possession of power inevitably corrupts the free judgment of reason, stands as a classic example of this view. It is important to grasp the notion of genealogy, as it has become crucial to many postmodern perspectives in International Relations. Genealogy is a style of historical thought which exposes and registers the significance of power–knowledge relations. Genealogy affirms a perspective which denies the capacity to identify origins and meanings in history objectively. A genealogical approach is anti-essentialist in orientation, affirming the idea that all knowledge is situated in a particular time and place and issues from a particular perspective.
Discovering identity from the Mohsin Hamid’s Reluctant Fundamentalist Abstract: The present research paper is an attempt to study and analyze Mohsin Hamid’s ‘The Reluctant Fundamentalist ‘in the light of Identity Crisis, cultural discrimination, terrorism political corruptions and inferiority complex in the socio-economic and cultural areas. The novel describes the positive and negative developments in the Pakistan and American relations. Hamid in The Reluctant Fundamentalist has attempted the issues of colonialism and the quest for identity on the part of people from the so called developing cultures in the present day context. Hamid has shown that America has assumed the status of neo-colonial power, and behaves like a colonialist country.
Munir, Lily. Islam and Human Rights. First of all, it should be said that "the question whether or not Islam is compatible with international human rights has been a long debate" (Munir 1). The thing is that traditionally Islam is taken by people, who do not know its main ideas, as a very strict and sometimes even cruel religion, that controls and limits the life of people who adhere to it. Munir in her work Islam and human rights also underlines the fact that Islamic Law has always been taken negatively in the West, because of a great number of various prejudices connected with it (1).