In doctrine, consensus on the purpose of UN peace operations does not exist in the twenty-first century. This has led to an inconsistent use of the different concepts of peacekeeping, which causes confusion. The lack of a clear purpose of peace operations inhibits academics and other writers to fully describe the rationale of actions and the changing role of the UN in global politics in this regard. A study of peacekeeping activities to explain their development and rationale is problematic due to their political nature. This method would be even less useful for complex missions, where elements of peacekeeping and peace building are combined.
But recently, with the changing nature of conflicts and the surge of intra-state confrontations, the functions of peacekeeping operations have become much more complex and comprehensive, encompassing conflict prevention, peacemaking, post conflict peace-building and assistance to the activities of international tribunals in bringing war criminals to justice. “Peacekeeping” is a term that imparts virtually no information about what type of operation is taking place. An average person cannot readily imagine what the term peacekeeping connotes. Commonly, the term implies an operation short of armed conflict. However, in the real sense it does not necessarily mean that the operation excludes armed conflict, as many peacekeepers have discovered.
For instance, UN peacekeepers need the consent of all parties in order to intervene, which requires a lot of time (Mouat), and in most situations, there is no time and immediate intervention is required. The overwhelming duties of UN peacekeepers and their restrictive orders make it really difficult for UN peacekeepers to establish peace in time, and, thus, there are often a lot of casualties. On top of that, the purpose of peacekeeping, which is to keep peace, often cannot attain justice. In most of the UN peacekeeping operations there is no peace to keep, and the making of peace is required. For instance, in the Rwandan genocide, the country was extremely chaotic and there was already no peace, and since the UN peacekeepers’ orders were just to keep the peace and not restore it; about 800 000 people in Rwanda
It is difficult to pinpoint the exact cause of those failures, it is possible that they were caused by insufficient monitoring of the disarmament process. However, disarming the warring parties is a direct and effective way of stopping the hostilities and eventually leading to a stable and permanent peace agreement. For the disarmament to be effective it should be preceded by an agreement between the factions so that the least amount of resistance possible is encountered. It is also of utmost importance for the process to be monitored by an impartial party, which would most probably be the UN or the AU. This would ensure that both
This programme affords refugees the opportunity to rebuild their lives in dignity and peace. The programme also helps refugees to integrate into the local community as well as help teach them the local customs, culture and language. The UN also sends in peace keepers to provide support and security to the refugees in camps where there is political unrest and war. Additionally they send medical supplies and education resources to these areas in order to help with the education of the children by people who volunteer to help
With these levels, United Nation is able to deploy soldier with minimal or no training to low-level operation while able to meet the demand for peacekeepers. Training will be conducted during the operation to hone existing skills or learn new one suggested by in-theatre experience. Even though armed forces are required to adjust their attitude and approach, many of the skill for combat operations are also applicable to peace support operation. With
1 Introduction Conflict at the sub-national level can impede development, can jeopardize human security and can greatly slow the process of peace-building and nation building. The formal end to a conflict, however, does neither guarantee an improvement to the situation nor assure a steady path towards post-conflict development and reconciliation. As such, it is becoming increasingly important to study the nature of a peace process and the actual peace accord reached. Understanding the framework of a peace accord will demonstrate both the overt and underlying concerns of all parties involved in the conflict. And, the plan of implementation will reveal the degree to which each party is serious about their commitment to a negotiated peace agreement.
Draft article for ECDM Great Insights Linking conflict prevention to supporting peacebuilding and statebuilding – an EU institutional perspective The developments we are seeing on the international scene present a serious challenge to any actor seeking to play a positive role in the world whilst also safeguarding domestic interests and security. The sheer number of concurrent crises we are facing; the complexity of inter-locking conflicts; the fragmentation of states and emergence of new, often transnational, violent actors; the simultaneous return to geo-political rivalry and resurgent nationalism in some quarters; the catastrophic humanitarian impacts and spillovers of these crises: at times these challenges can seem overwhelming when trying
In peace-making processes for the conflicts in the international relations, there determined several methods and theories in searching for what is the more proper method or what is the more effective organizations in peace-making and peace-building processes for the conflicts in many parts of the world. In this regard, in some cases it has been found that international organizations became effective in peace-making or peace-building processes of conflicts, for instance the role of the United Nations (UN) cannot be disregarded in peace-making and solving the conflicts since it has been established so far. However, as being the regional organization, the European Union or the African Union, as well as The Arab League, have in many cases became