the Islamic culture is viewed as oppressive, irrational, backward, and patriarchal because of the incorporation of the traditional Islamic culture and absence of the civic culture. The countries view the resistance to secularization as rejection of democracy, equality, rule of law- the notions which the Muslims struggle to bring to their countries. According to Huntington, the western ideas of free market, separation of the church and the state face little opposition in primary Islamic countries. The difference is mainly due to power structures and political realities in the United States and Middle East countries like Iraq and Iran. There is a general perception of incompatibility of the Muslim and western values.
The disintegration of nation states after the First World War which were governed by law and cultural ties was now taken over by issues of race and religion. Arendt writes that the presence of fear mixed with hatred stimulates followers of particular ideologies, thus it leads to hostility towards the outsiders of the ideology on the basis of
The ‘communal rights’ that they wish to have today are different than in the 1960s, the predominant one is the wearing of the veil, which is presently causing an uproar. Most newcomers each have religions and cultures that differ from the country they emigrate to, and with different religion comes different rituals. Thus, the locals fail to understand the immigrants and tend to fear them. Additionally, newcomers now experience a new problem, terrorism, making locals fear them even more. Some Europeans confound immigrants with terrorists because they have the same religion and fear that these have infiltrated the flow of migrants.
It argues that the lack of an authority higher than nation-states, causes states to act only in competitive and selfish ways, and that material power determines relations between states. John Mearsheimer supports this by saying, “States are potentially dangerous to each other. Although some states have more military might than others and are therefore more dangerous”(Mearsheimer, 70). Instead of keeping identities and interests in mind when determining relations between states, realists assert that anarchy will cause states to act solely in their best interest. Kenneth Waltz attempted to explain a structural realist perspective about anarchic structure.
Although this could address the problem, the country is still leaning towards social disorder since there would be conflicting ideologies arising from the inconsistencies among religious teachings in the different regions. This could ultimately lead into wars similar with what occurred in Nigeria during 2010 wherein Muslims clashed with Christians
Rowlandson’s and Equiano’s narratives each represent a different characteristic of what it means to be part of the American nation. Rowlandson teaches us that fighting will always be a part of the American identity. She was frightened of the external group; this fear persists in America and it has been affecting the American civilization for some time. An outcome of this fear is Equiano’s story. Just like Rowlandson’s fear of “the outsiders” still prevail in the American society to a different extent, so does suppression of a group of people, which is the result of this conflict and fear of “the outsiders”.
Growing nationalism has led to increased xenophobia and racial and religious intolerance. The illusory vision of a thriving, but imperialistic, Britain of centuries past is providing the shaky groundwork for a cultural movement of exclusivity and protectionism. Just as xenophobic attitudes are stoking this movement, the movement is reciprocating by bolstering these attitudes and carving a new generation of exclusivity. For immigrants remaining in and entering Britain, promises of assimilation on one hand and the preservation of cultural identity on the other are being thwarted. Explored in this paper are the difficulties and capacities facing immigrant families in Britain, especially in relation to cultural adaptation, assimilation, and identity.
Islam is still deemed as a religion of war, violence and blood-spilling sacred Jihad. However, these assumed hostility and aggressiveness of Islam was deeply planted in the mind of extremists and the western people, whose opinions mostly are shaped by the media, by the 9/11 attacks and bombing. (Qaradawi, 2010) It is also safe to assumed that these acts of “Jihad”, are misunderstood and misinterpreted by extremists of both sides, are all derived from the Quranic verses, around 109 verses, which encourage Muslims to fight the infidels. Their mistake is de-contextualization. In de-contextualized, any language can lose its actual meaning and intention, and become misinterpretations.
Islam is frequently portrayed in terms of fundamentalism. The images on our televisions, be they news coverage or fictional programmes, are too often of extremist Muslim action, without equal representation of majority moderate Muslim followers. A link is commonly made between Islam, terrorism and (an emotive and often sensationalised media issue in itself) asylum seekers. Furedi defines western society as dominated by a culture of fear whose defining feature…..is the belief that humanity is confronted by powerful destructive forces that threaten our everyday existence (2005:vii). Points of conflict and tension run high, when those trap with in this indemnity seek integration into western society comes at a cost.
At the same time, a comparative deterioration has occurred in secular terrorism. The old ideologies of class struggle world had experienced such as anticolonial liberation, and secular nationalism have been challenged by a new and dynamic infusion of sectarian ideologies. Common radical support for religious violence has been most widespread among populations living in repressive societies that do not permit demands for reform or other expressions of dissent. What is religious terrorism? What are its fundamental attributes?