The movement of the endocytosed protein which is destined for the apical surface to fuse with and also the movement of extracellular materials from one side of the epithelial cells to another can be termed as transcytosis. With respect to concept, transcytosis can be grouped into three processes namely; endocytosis, exocytosis and transcellular transport (Pravda,2011). Though transcytosis is tightly controlled by the cell it also has the potential for transepithelial movement of bacteria and other pathogens, hence it sometimes becomes an etiologic factor in the body(Pravda,2011). Trancytosis occurs in hepatocytes and this phenomenon is a typical example of transcellular transport . Here the apical membrane form bile and the basolateral membrane face blood.
In order for vaccines to work appropriately, they have to operate in a very convoluted way to make sure they live up to their standards. 1. Vaccines are developed by using the bacteria’s specimen that has been either killed or damaged which are dissolved in a solution. When the vaccine is injected into the body, the specimen revives that person’s immune system. After being injected, the immune system will now fight against the microbe by forming antibodies.
INTRODUCTION The major goals of periodontal therapy includes elimination of infection and controlling inflammation in order to arrest the progression of disease, and also the regeneration of lost tissues. Various biomaterials have been used for the treatment of intrabony defects and have demonstrated variable results . Recently, biological modifiers (growth factors) demonstrated their ability to stimulate cells which are located in periodontal defect and resulted in proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells . Biological modifiers are materials or proteins that have the potential to modify the host tissue so as to enhance wound healing process. These growth factors comprise platelet derived (PDGF), insulin
Natural transformations in which the uptake, integration and expression of extracellular DNA occurs under natural populations of bacteria. Through this mechanism bacteria can acquire DNA from foreign species which are not accessible to mobile genetic elements or bacteriophages. The requirement for this process is that, the bacteria should first develop a physiological state of competence. Some bacterial species, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae, are competent to accept DNA, whereas some others, such as Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, become competent after reaching a certain physiological stage in their life cycle (22,15). 2.
After the pathogen has infected, the next step is the “means of exit”. The mean of exist are different ways in which the pathogen is able to leave the recent body. The common routes in which this pathogen is allowed to leave are, ear, mouth, even nose. Also the reproductive tract plays a role when the pathogen want to leave. Open wounds are another common route in which the pathogen may exit.
SectionІІ: Overview of infection prevention for general clinical practice: According to Tietjen 2008, microorganisms are the causative agents of infection. They include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. In the context of infection prevention, bacteria can be further divided into three categories: vegetative (e.g., staphylococcus), mycobacteria (e.g., tuberculosis), and endospores (e.g., tetanus), which are the most difficult to kill. He also added that asepsis or aseptic technique is a general term used to describe the combination of efforts made to prevent entry of microorganisms into any area of the body where they are likely to cause infection. The goal of asepsis is to reduce to a safe level, or eliminate, the number of microorganisms
Abstract: Drug companies must apply the knowledge gathered from the effects of substrate concentration in an enzyme catalyzed reaction. The awareness of inhibitors must be applied so that their developed drugs do not inhibit enzymes. It would be important to consider substrate concentrations in relationship to target enzymes that are exposed. Competitive inhibitor drugs compete with high concentrations of ATP in the cell and proteins inside the cell contain lower concentrations. Thus the knowledge of the effects of substrate concentration on enzyme activity would aid drug designers in utilizing competitive inhibitors that will inhibit the enzyme more effectively.
This theory holds that an illness is due to infection by a single microbe ultimately culminating in a specific clinical disease. This disease, in turn, may be cured by administering a contrary medicine such as an antibiotic which restores health through microbial killing. Modern medicine uses rational explanation of natural events in terms of cause and effect. The cause here is held as natural which is the germ and this microorganism is responsible for illnesses and diseases. The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases.
OPERATIOINAL DEFINITION OF TERM Etiology: The science of the cause of disease Nosocomial: Pertaining to, or acquired in hospital. Infection: Invasion and multiplication of micro-organisms in body tissues, especially that causing local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins, intracellular replication or antigen-antibody response. Patient: A person who is ill or is undergoing treatment for a health care
Cubam, on the other hand, recycles to the cell surface. Intrinsic factor is degraded by actions of lysosomal protease (most likely by cathepsin L enzyme which differ from the intestinal proteases) in the lysosome, .. and the Cbl is released, (inhibitors of lysosomal function block secretion of Cbl from cultured opossum kidney cells) . Released vitamin B12 traverses the lysosomal membrane and enters the cytoplasm, a process that probably involves the protein LMBD1 and ABCD4. LMBD1 is a 61 kDa lipocalin receptor-like protein locate to the lysosomal membrane while the ABCD4 is ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter . Mutations in the gene encoding LMBD1 or ABCD4 are responsible for the rare inborn defects named cblF and cblJ respectively with similar phenotype and clinical symptoms.
The link between bacteria and ulcers was then established. After a great deal of research, it was revealed that in individuals that were infected with Helicobacter Pylori, antibodies were found in the bloodstream. Helicobacter Pylori are able to attach to cells as they go through the mucous layer of the stomach. When the bacterium enters the stomach, an enzyme called urease converts the stomach cells chemical urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. The enzyme urease tends to trigger inflammation.
Researchers used nursing theories to help guide research on complicated phenomena(Connelly, 2014). After reviewing evidences collected on the topic "Antibiotic therapy and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)", the most common theories that have been cited are, exposure to antibiotic, especiallyin patients that have been previously diagnosed with bacterial infections(respiratory, urinary and osteoarticular infections) are significanly at risk for acquiring CDI and theory for prevention cited was implementation of an Antibiotic stewardship program. Inaddition,hand hygiene, contact precaution and environmental cleaning protocols where other interventions listed. Concept Definitions Exposure to antibiotic- is operationally defined as the last time within 30 days a hospitalized patients received antibiotic therapy before the current hospital
My decision to apply to Columbia University is based on the belief that this program provides the optimal environment for me to investigate ethics as it pertains to medicine to prepare myself for the ethical requirements of a physician. Through the bioethics program at Columbia University, I intend to further investigate a few areas of interest. Surgical ethics is a significant area of interest and holds importance to me. I am interested in investigating the ethics of conducting research on the decisional capacity of patients who have
Avery-MacLeod-McCarty: In the 40’s genes were classified as a separate element of heredity that generates a metabolic function controlled by enzymes. It was also thought that genes were proteins. Experiments by Oswald T. Avery in 1944 explained that nucleic acid and deoxyribose acid previously known as the organisms ubiquitous turned out to be the chemical basis for heritable changes in the bacteria. Oswald Avery was a immunochemist in a hospital named The Hospital of the Rockefeller institute, which was for medical research. He worked for a long time with causes of pneumonia such as pneumococcus and bacterium.
Good and bad bacteria exist in our environment, depending on which one enters the body the immune system these bacteria can either compromise or aid the immune system’s illness fighting capabilities. In class we learned that the skin aids in fighting infection by acting as a protective barrier. In addition, we discussed how normal flora is found on the skin and aids in the defense mechanism because it fights off potential threats by competing with them. The normal flora consists of microorganisms such as protozoa, fungi and bacteria. The normal flora will compete with the foreign bacteria for nutrients and space and has the ability to push out or starve the invader as said in class.