Cross Cultural Differences In Culture

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With the emergence of the global marketplace, cross-cultural differences are increasingly recognized as a key factor in successful marketing strategies (Lee & Harada, 2000). Prior studies conducted within various contexts have observed that tourist behavior is affected by cultural background (Chen, 2000; Crotts & Erdmann, 2000; Litvin, Crotts, & Hefner, 2004; Litvin & Kar, 2003). For example, cross-cultural differences have been found to affect the use of external information sources by Japanese, South Korean and Australian tourists traveling to the USA (Chen, 2000); the behavior of German and Japanese tourists traveling to the USA (Litvin et al., 2004); self-image in travelers departing from Singapore (Litvin & Kar, 2003); and the evaluation of travel services within the USA (Crotts & Erdmann, 2000). Furthermore, different ethnic and/or racial groups vary in their leisure preferences and behaviors due to different constraints and affordances, as illustrated in numerous studies (e.g., Philipp, 1995; Shinew, Floyd, & Parry, 2004; Stodolska, 1998). For instance, Philipp found African-Americans to be less comfortable in certain activities, such as golf, skiing and hunting, than white Americans. This is in line with the work of Woodard (1988), who found that African-Americans were constrained by the fear of racial prejudice and discrimination and therefore chose activities that allowed them to avoid prejudice and discrimination. According to Tsai and Coleman (1999),
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