Quantitative Methods In Nursing

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3.1 Research Design
A cross sectional descriptive study design was used in order to give a detailed description of the nurse’s knowledge, practice and challenges on the care of critically ill patients. In a cross sectional study, data were collected at one point in time, the phenomena under the study was captured during one period of data collection (Polit and Beck, 2008). Quantitative approach was used to collect and analyze data from the study participants; data was quantified in numerical values, percentages to enable statistical inferences. A quantitative method was chosen because it enables the researcher to test the relationship and examine cause and effect among dependent and independent variables.
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Questionnaire (see appendix A1&A2) and checklist (appendix B1&B2) in order to answer the objectives of the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was given to nurses in the ward. Nurses filled the questionnaire themselves after given clear instructions from the researcher. The questionnaires included both close and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were in English and Swahili version. English version because it is the communication language in health professional as well as all nurses in Tanzania are trained using English language and for Swahili version is for the purpose of comfortability of participants. The questionnaire was developed after a wide literature review and consultation of specialists in critical care and trauma. The questionnaires were administered in all three working shifts of a day. The estimated time of filling the questionnaires was about 30 – 40 minutes. The principal investigator and research assistants were all available on all shifts to seek consent, give questionnaires to participants, assisting participants for clarification and observe nurses practice on care of critically ill patients. The questionnaire comprised three sections in order to assess the following…show more content…
10 Validity
Validity is the degree to which instrument measures what is intended to measure, (Polit & Beck, 2004). In this study content validity was achieved by having the questionnaire reviewed by the professional nurses in the field of critical care and trauma and research experts to assess relevance of tool items and study objectives. To ensure face validity the researcher discussed together with professional nurse specialists if the questionnaires are clearly worded, well explained and if it addresses what it is meant to address.

3.11 Reliability
Reliability is the consistence or constancy of a measuring instrument (Polit & Beck, 2004). To ensure reliability of instrument, the questionnaire was pre-tested among nurses who were not included in the study, pre-tested was done to 17 nurses at Mnazi Mmoja Hospital (MMH) Zanzibar, it is a 10% of the sample size to check the clarity
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