Then, the flask is put on shaker table and mixed at 150 rounds per minute before allowing them to settle for 10 minutes. After settling, the water sample is poured from side spout which is connected to the bottom of the flask. Some researchers reported better reproducibility with modified flask where stopcock is installed at the bottom of the flask, instead of side spout to pour the water sample (Blondina, et al., 1997) (Sorial, et al., 2004a) (Sorial, et al., 2004b). The dispersed oil in the removed water sample is extracted into methylene chloride for further analysis. Then, the oil concentration is evaluated using 340, 370 and 400 nm light absorbance (Environmental Protection Agency,
• When there was about 2-5 mL of mixture left in the flask, the vapour was no longer able to make it to the condenser and it would fall back into the flask. The distillations were stopped after this point as minimal liquid was being collected in the
Reflux condensation was performed with use of a heating mantle and retort stand. A total of 20 minutes was allocated for reflux, starting when the mixture first began signs of boiling(T0), to when the allocation of time was depleted(T20). The mixture was filtered into a 50mL conical flask, and 10mL of 100°C water. The extract was subsequently allowed to cool to room temperature, and decanted into a separating funnel. Liquid-Liquid (Polar-Nonpolar) extraction of DCM In a fume hood, 8.0mL of DCM was added to the separating funnel, capped and gently mixed.
The crude oil and the hydrocarbon products like gasoline, diesel, kerosene, aviation fuel and fuel oils contains impurities such as sulphur and nitrogen that have to be removed. In the refineries, unsaturated components such as olefins are produced during the process whereas sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, halides etc. are already present in the crude oil. Today, most of the crude oils have very high sulphur content and is a very strong impurity that must be removed in order to meet the emission criterions that result from using the fuels in vehicles, aircrafts, power plants, heaters, and other methods of fuel combustion. Also, the catalysts present in the further refining units can be poisoned by the sulphur.
To adjust the liquid level, liquid flow from the chimney tray is sent off to the bottom section through the control valve which similar to the conventional distillation column used. Through this manner, the vapor split ratio control can be accomplished intentionally
Crude oil seldom produced alone. It is generally commingled with water, which creates a number of problems during oil production. Produce water occurs in two ways: some of the water may be produced as free water, and some of the water may be produced in the form of emulsion (Sunil Kokal, 2006). Emulsion problem in crude oil productions resulted in a demand for
Therefore, it is necessary to find the ways to minimize the total production cost of biodiesel. In this context, methods that can reduce the costs of raw materials as well as the energy consumption are of special concern. The use of waste cooking oils (WCO) is one of attractive options to reduce the raw material cost . Furthermore, by using waste cooking oils as feedstock in biodiesel production, in addition to their positive influence in reducing the final cost of biodiesel, serious environmental pollution problems causing from these waste oils can be eliminated. However, the physical and chemical properties of the feedstock significantly influence biodiesel production reaction as well as fuel properties.
Into a dry graduated cylinder of 250 mL (readable to 2 mL), gently introduce, without compacting, approximately 100 g of the test sample (m) weighed with 0.1 per cent accuracy. Carefully level the powder without compacting, if necessary, and read the unsettled apparent volume (V0) to the nearest graduated unit. Calculate the bulk density in g per mL by the formula m/V0. Generally, replicate determinations are desirable for the determination of this property. 220.127.116.11 Method 2 Apparatus The apparatus consists of a 100 mL cylindrical vessel of stainless steel with dimensions as specified in Fig.
Gasoline has two types light and heavy, it is used in cars and different transportations. Kerosene can use as fuel in the houses or jets. Asphalt is not gas but it heavy derivatives and they use it for road working. 2) High energy generating : Companies can generate from petroleum about 10,000 kilo calories (kcal) for burning one kilogram of burnt oil so small amount can generate a substantial amount of
These vegetable oils trasnsesterified before blend with diesel because of the oils have glycerol. It must extract from the bio fuel because it will affect the engine performance. Among these, the transesterification is the most commonly used commercial process to produce clean and environmental friendly fuel. Methyl/ethyl/butyl esters of, mustard oil, mahua oil have been successfully tested on C.I. engines and their performance has been studied.