As shown in Fig. 4, the system COP increased first and then decreased with the generating temperature increasing and there existed a maximum value of 0.277 at Tg = 63 °C. The variation tendency of the cooling capacity was similar to that of the system COP, but the maximum value of 734.4 W at Tg = 67 °C. The total pressure of the primary flow in the nozzle was relatively low with the generating temperature set under these conditions. The reason for the
 Moisture determination is an important indicator of the fertilizer 's quality. Nutrient content is dependent on the amount of moisture it contains. It is necessary to grind the sample so that fineness desired for the experiment is achieved. In this experiment, gravimetric method of analysis was used. Gravimetric analysis is a method that involves precipitating and weighing the mass to determine how much of a certain substance is present.
Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g. fillers) and additives that release inert gases, water or Carbon dioxide during decomposition, and dilute the fuel in the solid and gaseous phases so that the lower ignition limit of the gas mixture is not exceeded, e.g. aluminium hydroxide leaving water [26,13,20]. Fire retardation by Chemical action The most significant chemical reactions that interfere with the combustion process take place either in the solid and gaseous phases: Reaction in the gaseous
The apparatus of Soxhlet extraction including condenser, tubes, Soxhlet chamber, round bottom flask and heating mantle were set up for solvent extraction. In addition, oil recovery method was done using a rotary vacuum evaporator. Other equipments used including oven and 0.5mm sieve were used for seed preparation.
Introduction Circular dichroism (CD) is form of light absorption spectroscopy that measures the difference in absorbance of right- and left-circularly polarized light (rather than the commonly used absorbance of isotropic light) by a substance. It is applicable for molecules have one or more chiral chromophores . Circular dichroism = ΔA(λ) = A(λ)LCPL - A(λ)RCPL, where λ is the wavelength This technique measured a molecule over a range of wavelengths. All chiral molecules can be studied, particularly in study of large biological molecules. A primary application is in the analysing the conformation of macromolecules or secondary structure (particularly proteins).
〖NaOH〗_((aq))+〖HCl〗_((aq))→〖NaCl〗_((aq))+H_2 O_((l)) In aqueous solutions the substances that are involved will experience dissociation, which changes the ionization state of the substances (Neutralization, 2018). When an acid is dissolved in water the covalent bond between the electronegative atom
Need for sandblasting The surface preparation includes mechanical cleaning. This cleaning includes methods like scratch brushing and sandblasting. In this the abrasive action not only removes the surface impurities but also eliminates scratches and surface irregularities. Sandblasting is very good, however coating must be done immediately because cleaned surface is in a highly reactive state and corrosion occurs very soon. 5.2.
The procedure can be (1) algorithm, a predetermined sequence of actions that will lead to the correct answer when properly executed, or (2) actions that may need to be appropriately structured to solve a given problem (example equation is complete). This knowledge is developed through practice problem-solving, and thus dependent on the type of problem. Furthermore, 'It is clear the nature of the procedures that may set them apart from most other sciences' (Hiebert & Lefevre,
3.8 Microstructure Analysis Microstructure analysis are define the structure of samples by using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Microstructure analysis are important because it can influence the physical and mechanical properties such as strength and hardness of samples. FESEM used to identify the particle size and morphology of samples. First, the samples preparation must done before the analysis of microstructure. The samples need to grinding and polishing by using silica carbide paper and diamond paste to make the samples more smooth and shine.
The main process used is a chemical fixation combined with critical point drying; after these processes the sample, after been positioned on a ‘stub’ of aluminium, is covered by a thin layer of silver, gold or platinum (in the lab we used a mixture of gold and platinum). This cover is necessary to remove the electrons that accumulate on the surface of the sample, which can contribute to the noise. To perform this covering is used the machinery in figure 4: the purple fluorescence derived from the argon, the gas used instead of the air during this process of anodic-cathode deposition. The resulting coting layer is more or less 40 nm