Due to several layers of thermal resistance intervened between the heating element and the blood to be warmed, the productivity of the system is reduced. If the warming blood is placed in a non-sterile water bath. It is a perfect medium for growing bacteria which can contaminate the whole blood. Apparently, the intravenous tube must be verified prior to the transfusion. If there is a leak with the intravenous tube, it causes mixing of the blood and non-sterile warming fluid in the water bath .
Chromic acid cleanly oxidizes secondary alcohols to ketones using acetones as solvent and the product isolation is simple. The terpene borneol (with an endo-secondary hydroxyl group, -OH) is oxidized to camphor as below: Oxidation of borneol is an exothermic reaction, in order to avoid creation of side product; the experiment should be carried out at room temperature. Extreme heat will lead to creation of camphoric acid, therefore the heat should be controlled when carrying out the experiment. Result and calculation:
Thermal stability based on formaldehyde releasing temperature and POM degradation temperature is important information to evaluate how an in-situ BA-a formation in POM efficiently retards the POM chain degradation by consuming the released formaldehyde and decreases the continuous POM chain scission. The use of TG-FITR was applied so that the degradation temperature and the component generated at that stage can be trace. Figure 3a shows the pristine POM starts showing the formaldehyde peak (CH2O at 1745 cm-1 and 2800 cm-1) at 289 C. As POM-B05A10 was prepared under the condition that POM was molten, the consideration of POM degradation had better reply on the POM after melting, so-called the thermal treated POM, than the
Chapter 3 PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL 3.1. Preparation of Canola Methyl Ester Fig: 5 Preparation of Canola Oil Methyl Ester 3.2. Preparation of Aloevera Methyl Ester Fig: 6 Preparation of Aloevera Oil Methyl Ester 3.3. Pre-treatment Filtered Canola and Aloevera oils are first taken to remove moisture. As water content of the feedstock is critical parameter and should be kept below 0.06% w/w for better conversion of oil to esters.
However, PSF membrane application is limited due to its hydropobic properties which results in low water flux and membrane fouling. Thus, to overcome this problem, a chemical reaction of zeolite as additive is used to modify the membrane surface and performance. 3.0
Therefore, damages on the chemical constituents can be avoided due to SFE works under low temperature. Moreover, this fluid can be regenerated by adjusting pressure and recycled thus it is said to be environmental friendly extraction method. Generally, the fluid used in this method is carbon dioxide, CO2. However, this extraction technique usually requires a longer time in extracting
It should be found the best way to manufacture it and ensure it will operate without failure. Due to the fact that mechanical engineers must have all these skills and knowledge, it is one of the broadest and most diverse of engineering disciplines. These engineers are needed in most of the industries such as automotive (from the car chassis to its subsystems), aerospace (airplanes, aircraft engines, control systems for airplanes and spacecraft), biotechnology (implants, prosthetic devices, fluidic systems for pharmaceutical industries), computers and electronics (disk drives, printers, cooling systems, semiconductor tools), MEMS (sensors, actuators, micropower generation), energy conversion (gas turbines, wind turbines, solar energy, fuel cells), environmental control (air-conditioning, refrigeration, compressors), automation (robots, data and image acquisition, recognition, control), manufacturing (machining, machine tools,
Abstract–Distillation column has always been and will continue to be one of the most important thermal separation equipment used in various types of industries for various applications, i.e. in oil refineries, in water purification/ desalinisation plants, in pharmaceutical industriesetc. Modelling and simulation of distillation column are not new to the process and control engineer. The model used for distillation column varies from the simple to quite complex, depending on the assumption made in the material balance and energy balance equations to describe the distillation column behaviour. This paper discuss about the dynamic modelling of continuous binary distillation column in Matlab tool and the response analysis while varying the assumptions
Abstract—one of the major tasks in any process industry is to transportation of fluid from one place to another. The most convenient method for the same is to transfer the fluid through piping system. The piping system is the interconnected piping subject to the same set of design conditions. The piping system involves not only pipes but also the fittings, valves, flanges, Gaskets, bolting and other specialties. The main objective of this thesis is to design the piping system and then to analyze its main components.
The requirement of specialized corrosion resistant reactors increases the cost of pretreatment, which can be minimized by recovering acid after hydrolysis to make the process economical (Sun and Cheng, 2002; Kumar et al.,2009). Dilute acid pretreatment is preferred over concentrated acid treatment. It has been successfully utilized for pretreatment of a wide variety of lignocellulosic biomass. It results in quick hydrolysis of amorphous hemicellulose through the disruption of xylosidic bonds and cleavage of acetyl ester groups. The lignin seal is degraded through substitution reactions and broken links accompanied by condensation reactions that prevent dissolution (Bensah and Mensah, 2013).