And Saito, Gerber and his colleagues postulated that the extensive amount of television viewing is a factor that contributes to a homogenized view of the real world and which process they then term mainstreaming (Gerbner et al., 1980, 1986 cited in 2007, p.512). Gerbner and his colleagues believe that the individuals that spend more time on television viewing which happens to be the heavy viewers are more likely to believe the the television version of reality. And they also noted that the individuals who consumed extensive amount of violence television programmes can develop the “mean world” syndrome and have the tendency to fuel and held exaggerated beliefs about the amount of violence in this society. As the researchers put it, “People who watch more violent television believe the world is a more dangerous place than those who watch less TV” (Gerbner & Gross, 1976; Morgan, 1983 cited in Harris and Karafa, n.d., p.5). The heavy consumption of violence television programmes cultivated the perception of the individuals that the world is hostile and mean, and it is more violent than the reality is.
The second effect is agenda setting. This is another reason why we might call dependency a "comprehensive" theory of media effects because it includes the theory of agenda-setting within its theoretical framework. Just like other effects, the effects of media agenda-setting should be intensified in times when the audience’s needs and dependency on media are high. Third is attitude-formation. Media shows us new people such as celebrities and political figures.
Name: Lebogang Letwaba Due Date: 2 March 2018 Title: The influence of the media on older teenager’s values and beliefs about relationships The emergence of media has affected real life interactions with the evolving times of technology, real-life relationships have seen a drastic effect in the mind-set of people. An effect in the ability for people to think independently with emotional intelligence has been influenced by the norms that have been adapted in the new age of social media. Due to the strong influence that all forms of media have on various interactive relationships, a change in values and beliefs has occurred within relationships, affecting the extent of privacy, self-esteem, attitudes, cyber-bullying, communication, respect levels
One of the most influential factor is definitely the media. First of all, we need to understand what cultivation means. Cultivation is how media in general affects the individual, in their view of their social reality. By only showing certain points of view, television today has enough power to affect the public discourse and therefore the individuals train of thoughts (Shanahan and Morgan 1999, p.4). This may cause certain misconceptions about different aspects of life, than one’s own aspects, thus altering their opinions but that is not all it causes.
The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend 'living ' in the television world, the more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television. Signorelli points out that under this umbrella, perceptions of the world are heavily influenced by the images and ideological messages transmitted through popular television media (2003). Cultivation theory suggests that exposure to television, over time, subtly 'cultivates ' viewers ' perceptions of reality. Television is a medium of the socialization of most people into standardized roles and behaviors. Its function is in a word, enculturation.
Hence, music may help an audience to recall or recognize the brand or the product. Research was conducted by Kellaris (1993) illustrating the music-message congruency, which “refers to the congruency of meanings communicated nonverbally by music and verbally by ad copy” (115), has some impacts on the some aspects of ad recall and recognition. North’s study (2003) also revealed that there was an overall significant difference between the conditions with classical music leading to higher spending than both no music and pop music. It shows that music does have a significant impact on the customers’ spending. Likewise, the music of TV commercial does have some impact on the customers’ mood and purchasing intentions.
(2004) argue that the potential of the mass media by means of cultivation is a powerful force in social influences on society. They state that the media is capable of formulating ideas, and changing cognitive behaviours of people and a way of life as social norm. Redmond (2008:110) stated that the expansion of television channels with satellite and cable television, along with the Internet with its multitude of home pages, links and blogs, has added a range of new avenues to be placed beside the existing newspaper and magazine articles. Stars and celebrities are constantly questioned on how they maintain their bodily fitness, good looks and appearance, while coping with challenging work schedules (Featherstone, 2010:202). The cultivation of appearance has a strong gender dimension, with greater attention given to women’s bodies.
Advertisements have bad influences on purchaser’s decisions. The population explosion over the years has resulted in mass production of goods. Following this, the desire of people is getting higher and higher. Advertising plays an important role in the business strategy of companies to bring goods and services nearly to customers. Moreover, the impact of advertising is enormous that it causes people to purchase things that they do not want initially.
It gave the television executives and producers the power to shape viewers perspective of culture and society. With the invention of remote control and others technologies that allowed to control the TV programming (ex. on-demand) the continuous flow of content was disrupted. Audience gain power to make their own choices regarding viewing experience and behavior. The change that technologies imposed on classical notion of flow “signals a shift away from the programming-based notion of flow that Williams documented to a viewer-centered notion ”.
It is often called either the bullet theory or direct effects theory of media influence. This unelaborated model of media effects argued essentially that media messages directly influence audiences’ behavior. It is this model that represents the underlying fear of critics of mass media during the first third of this century, that is, that media messages can have a direct influence on the mass of the audience. Over the years, much media research has gone into elaborating and correcting this model. First, it was noted that different people responded differently to the same messages.