James (2002, p. 27) explains that “translation is a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions.” This definition supports the idea that translators are faced with the problem of how to deal with different cultural aspects implicit in the source text. As Lado (1957, p. 2) explicates: “Individuals tend to transfer the forms and meaning and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture both receptively when attempting to grasp and understand the language and culture as practiced by natives.” In translation, therefore, not only the two languages, but also the two cultures come into
Viewpoint 1. Acculturation strategies Aim of this framework is to find best practice for societies, groups and individuals to follow during the process of acculturation. Acculturation strategies defines as “Variations in the way acculturating groups and individuals attempt to manage the process of acculturation” referring to Berry (Berry, 2017). In the domain of socio-cultural psychology, acculturation is typically seen as two key issues that determine immigrants’ acculturation strategies. First view, concerns abstract issue of maintaining and sustaining original culture communities.
Cultural Narrative Culture is recognized as a noun and according to the dictionary it is defined as, “The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation or people.” In other words, culture is the identity of a particular community that is learned by previous generations and is implied by certain institutions. Culture never remains the same because the future generations keep on evolving their beliefs and ways, of which they do things. There is a probability that your culture may differ from mine, and that is what makes our cultures so great! Our culture is what allows us to stand out and differ from one another. From our customs to the way we dress, it is all part of our culture.
Hofstede views culture as “the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (1994, p. 5). It is apparent from this definition that Hofstede is stressing the power of culture in assorting people into distinct categories or strata based on different qualities and characteristics that they embody. Matsumoto contends that culture is “the set of attitudes, values, beliefs, and behaviors shared by a group of people, but different for each individual, communicated from one generation to the next” (1996, p. 16). Hence, Matsumoto believes that culture is the possession of one group of people which is passed from one generation to another. Samovar and Porter provide a more detailed
It is through it, that individuals exchange information and give room for boundaries to shift, gain value as well as meaning. Normally, shared experiences can be used to categorize individuals, such that they insist on their uniqueness (Tilly 2005: 52). The idea of being unique evokes change in the society. Change occurs in a community when “[...] individuals meet and enter the same social space. A common boundary is [automatically] formed at the exact point of contact” (Tilly 2005: 214- 215).
All earlier media provides facility of one or two levels of communication. Whereas, by using new media we can communicate at different levels at the same time. This makes the new media, the medium of multiple communications. On the other hand, culture is defined as shared manners, customs, beliefs, rituals, ceremonies, laws, ideas, thought patterns, arts, tool, social institutions, religious beliefs, myths, facts, knowledge, values, concept of self, morals, ideals and accepted ways of behaving. Culture involves the social acquisitions and transmission of patterns of customs, beliefs and behavior through symbols and widely shared meanings.
Cultural studies in Britain pointed out that cultural identity are dynamic, fluid, and constructed rather than inherent, bounded or static. There are other new meanings of culture and that it is a dynamic concept, always negotiable and in process of endorsement, contestation, and transformation and it are also an active process of meaning making and contestation over definition. The latter meaning has three stages, first, overt attempts by identified agents to redefine key symbols which give a particular view of the world. Second, a view of the world becomes institutionalized and works through non-agentive power. Third, a key term which carries a new way of thinking about one aspect of life enters other domains and becomes a diffused and prevalent way of thinking in everyday life.
Dillon and McKenzie (1998) study and found that the most important factors that should be (passive voice provide more detail)analyzed for better listening are receiver apprehension, willingness to communicate, and readiness to listen, in addition to improving culture competence. To achieve intercultural skills is to avoid generalizations about other cultures, unless they are completely familiar. When listening is perceived to be required, the quality and intensity of a person is mediated by their attitude toward the concepts of listening competence and performance (Imhof & Janusik, 2006). Culture forms an individual’s worldview, and is especially pronounced when intercultural communication is attempted. To take into account the effects of listening, it is important to consider the speaker and the listener.
I believe lower-class communities are not offered the same opportunities as upper-class. However, there are certain opportunities that are offered in these communities and individuals choose not to take advantage of it, because it is easier to get the money than to work for the money, i.e. welfare. I think it affects the younger population the most because they don’t have encouragement all around. For instance, they might have great programs in the community, counselors who believe in them, teachers who are supportive, but if they go home to a parent who is mentally abusing them and badgering them, then they will feel worthless because that person whom they believe and have trusted their whole life is right, they will never amount to nothing.
Habraken, 1976 cited by Pakilaran, 2006 (http://www.ar.itb.ac.id/wdp/ accessed on November 11, 2013). describes the factors that cause the transformation is as follows: (1) The need for identity (identification) basically people want to be known and want to introduce themselves to the environment; (2) Life Style changes in the structure of society, the influence of contact with other cultures and the emergence of new discoveries about people and their environment; (3) The effect of new technology in the emergence of the sense of belonging to the mode, where the parts that can still be used technically (has not reached the technical age is forced to be replaced in order to follow the mode) Barongan in the Blora region serves as a ritual and performance ceremony on certain days of importance. Since the Local Government of Blora City declared barongan as the identity of "Barongan Spirit of Life" Blora community, in its development barongan which originally only as media of ritual performances become media of entertainment show. Along with the change of function, the form of appearance barongan begin to change more attractive and even leads back realist like a real tiger. In addition there is also a transformation of the barongan form for performances to souvenirs barongan and