Howard Gardner's Frames Of Mind: Cultural Differences

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Nowadays, the most widely spoken language in the world is English and people have learnt it to reach a great variety of purposes such as education, science, tourism and commerce. It is in this situation where two different point of view has arised. Whereas there are those (Jenkins, 2005; Seidlhofer, 2001) who hold the idea of English as a lingua franca (a bridge language used by people whose native language is different) which does not need to be taught regarding the culture; another view, such as Byram, 1990) claims for teaching an acculturate language or (target language culture).

Culture is a complex concept, whose definition depends on the enclosed field. Nonetheless, what they have in common is that culture encompasses a community of people and it affects their
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Nonetheless, it is well known that not all human beings are in the same level or possess the same ability to solve, for example mathematical problems, nor acquire knowledge in the same way, speed and efficacy. On the other hand, human beings do possess abilities which can be developed and strengthened (Gardner, 1982). Howard Gardner, doctor in Social Psychology at the University Harvard, challenged the educational system by publishing his book Frames of Mind (1983). Gardner believed that assuming that all people can learn the same disciplines and be assessed in much the same way, is a huge mistake. He transformed the abstract conception of human intelligence and presented the term of multiple intelligences or intellectual competences, which are relatively independent among them. Despite not learning by using the same techniques and in an amount of time determined, Gardner proposed a model where eight modalities or intelligences fulfill distinctively a specific criteria (see table 1). They are innate and developed in some degree according to each
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