Toury clarified that the recipient culture, or a certain part of it, which works to determine what to translate and how to translate. Hence, translators are supposed to function in the interest of culture where they are producing translations, but not in the interest of the original texts or the source culture. In addition, he added that culture refers to the whole social context in which the translation takes place, together with criteria, ideology, values and convention of the recipient system. In 1990, Bassnett and Lefevere officially put forward the concept of cultural turn in their volume Translation, History and Culture in which the cultural turn is the key concept and the concept of culture takes on a wider sense. Later, based on the precious studies and findings, André Lefevere put forward the concepts of “translation as rewriting” and “rewriting as manipulation” in his book entitled Translation, Rewriting and The Manipulation of Literary Fame.
Metaphorical language: this is associated with literary language, its play a crucial role in the coherence of a poem or novel. Which transfer the word or the meaning with it aesthetic meaning. Mona Baker here noted about how the difficulties of equivalence in translation from the society. Chaparo focuses on sociocultural targets of the translations, he discuss her aspect of linguistics and sounds repetition rhyme. it depend on the society culture there is words with a same meaning he can use it to explain the sentence but it depend on the culture of the reader or audience , and make it fit within the literary tradition .
A translator may subject him-/herself either to the original text, with the norms it has realized, or to the norms active in the target culture, or in that section of it which would host the end product. Translation is a complicated task, during which the meaning of the source-language text should be conveyed to the target-language readers. In other words, translation can be defined as encoding the meaning and form in the target language by means of the decoded meaning and form of the source language. Different theorists state various definitions for translation. The concept of norms in translation theory was
It is through culture that people are defined, and share particular value systems. “Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour, acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action. (1993, p. 36&37) Culture and society are closely related, society consists of people belonging to a particular culture which have a set of universal signs. Language, ideology, cultural products, institutions and organisations make up systemic parts of our culture For example art and classical music is representative of high culture it is through these cultural signifiers that individuals create meaning from their existence.
The term “translation” refers to the process of transferring information encoded in the source language to the target language. The most important aspect of the translation process is to preserve the meaning in a way that will be as close as possible to that of the original message. The origin of the word “translation” derives from the Latin term “translatio”, which, in turn, is a combination of the words “trans” and “fero”, meaning “to carry across” or “to bring across”. However, there is also an alternative Latin word “traduco”, which is translated as “to lead across”. “Translation studies” is an academic discipline which “concerns itself with the study of translation” (Baker 2005: 277).
Francis R. Jones (2009) draws attention to the fact that ST-TT relations are the core of literary translation studies, which focus on issues of equivalence and communicative purpose. With regard to equivalence, one has to contemplate whether the intricate web of stylistic elements can ever be replicated. With regard to communicative purpose the translator needs to consider whether to stay loyal to the writer of the ST or to produce a text which works in terms of receptor-genre. Style and its translation is the next concern for it “defines the writer’s ‘cultural space-time’” and because “writers may deliberately use non-standard styles – archaism, dialect, or a style idiosyncratic to the writer.” (Jones, 2009:153) Furthermore, Jarniewicz (2015)
social norms, culture, mentality, hidden intentions and pragmatic elements, such as tone, intonation, facial expressions gestures, etc. All of them form a context of situation in which the language was used and we will not give adequate interpretation of the language without them. So, the universe of discourse which is the total context of facts, things, relations , ideas , etc., implied or assumed in a given discussion or discourse is very important when analyzing meanings .The complete meaning of a written or spoken discourse can be fully understood from the context rather than the sentence alone . It is also understood by examining the
More recently, pragmatic competence is considered to be “an understanding of the relationship between form and context that enables us, accurately and appropriately, to express and interpret intended meaning” (Murray, 2010, p. 293). The definition of pragmatics competence regarding the importance of analyzing language through negotiation of meaning, provide us with a
1.1 Introduction The study of “cross cultural communication” is a great example of linguistic theory and how it’s applied. Researchers are often drawn towards this area of study for its vast significance; “depending on the culture, the people, and the personal relationships throughout the world.” This is further studied to interpret sentences beyond its linguistically stated sentences. This is in turn done by observing the interactions one has, the habits it instills, and “expectations of how to show what is meant by what is said. The form of communication used over the years is “language”. It is the vital way of communication performed among humans, has an important role in “defining and expressing the world that is around us.” It is how we send out a message to other people.
Thus, an accurate and adequate analysis of the literary language is required for an exhaustive comprehension of the work. Stylistic analysis is employed as an analytical tool to reveal and evaluate textual patterns. Analyzing a given piece of literature is meant to validate how language, syntax and vocabulary are used to bring about interpretation of