Empathy is important in culture differences because it is about understanding and accepting another culture that is different with yours instead of judging the culture whether good or bad and adapts to the foreign culture. (Adler, 1991) Without understanding and accepting culture differences, it will form intercultural barriers such as ethnocentrism. (Donald B. Pope-Davis, 2013) Ethnocentrism is a social bias which views own culture is superior compared than others cultures. Every individual holds ethnocentric behaviors. The degree of ethnocentrism will influence one’s intercultural competence to communicate efficiently and successfully in social context.
Parenting style is meant to describe normal variations in parenting. In other words, the parenting style typology Baumrind developed should not be understood to include deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive or neglectful homes. ii. Baumrind (1991), asserted that normal parenting revolves around issues of control. Although parents may differ in how they exert control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, educate, and socialize their children.
Differential association is a theory based on the social environment and its circumventions, individuals and the values those individuals gain from significant others in their social environment. (Williams & McShane, 64-65) This theory suggests that these techniques, motivations, rationalizations and attitudes are learned through interactions with people close to them. It does not suggest that people whom are surrounded by negative or criminal actions are negative or criminal. Instead, it suggests that those who have a preponderant ratio of unfavorable to favorable definitions of deviant behavior are more liable to act in a deviant way. (Cressey, 1954-1955) The fact that the children think it’s okay to play with guns and torture others expresses that their society is condoning these actions.
Because of these issues in particular, cultural appropriation differs greatly from cultural exchange, which we can understand as “reciprocal exchange of symbols, artifacts … or technologies between cultures with roughly equal levels of power” (Rogers, 2006, p. 477). Cultural appropriation cannot occur between two cultures with the similar levels of power, meaning that one must be classified as the majority and the other as the minority. Cultural appropriation can also be understood as cultural exploitation which is described as “the appropriation of elements of a subordinated culture by a dominant one without substantive reciprocity, permission, or
Conformity is, in simplified terms, the tendency to modify ones’ own belief and judgement due to group pressure and follow social norms, as cited by Garton and Fletcher. This change is in response to real or imagined (involving the pressure of social norms / expectations) group pressure. The person follows the majority or crowd because they do not want to stand out and be the inferior or “weird” one in a particular social or cultural group. Conformity is mostly studied in social psychology, as it involves both individuals and the people around who influence them. One of the most famous conformity research studies are Solomon Asch’s experiment on conformity which was carried out in the 1950s.
These dystopias are meant to effectively teach us because it uses it appeals to our emotions using the story’s world and it’s mistakes through meaningful characters and extreme example of cause and affect. There are, without a doubt, many flaws about the world and dystopian stories emphasize on these flaws. These flaws are emphasized
As per Steele and Aronson’s study conducted in 1995, it was introduced that a stereotype threat is the ideology of being at risk of negative conformant and characterisation based on ones self and/or social group. The phenomenon of a stereotype threats is widely incorporated into society in order to influence or impact an outcome and/ or performance. A stereotype threat can play a positive or a negative role in the standard intellectual and cognitive assessments of a group. However, these stereotypical threats predominantly carry negative connotations that allow individuals of a group to conform to the negative stereotypes associated with their self or social group. The psychological and behavioural outcomes of an individual can be significantly altered as a result
Merton focuses on “discovering how some social structures exert a definite pressure upon certain people in the society to engage in ‘nonconformist conduct’” (Merton, 1938: 672). Merton states that there are two important elements of social and cultural structure: culture goals and institutional norms. He states that culturally defined goals, purposes, and interests are the reason why people make poor decisions in situations. The goals of the people are strictly based off of the strive for respect and their emotions in situations. “The social structure defines, regulates, and controls the acceptable modes of achieving these goals” (Merton, 1938: 673).
A case study by Bochiaro and Zamperini supports that the response of people within a group, when faced with certain social objects, can change in terms of a relationship engaged. Conformism is the change in people’s thinking, feeling and the way they may act due to the pressure whether it is real or implied that is demonstrated by the group. They also support that conformism and obedience are not necessarily negative. Without the two it will be a chaotic world because social norms are the basis of conformism and obedience. (Bocchiaro, Zamperini, 2012).
Aims: The aim of this report is to educate students about relevant psychological theories and research that illustrate errors in thinking and why it is important to develop critical thinking skills. We will consider how the three heuristics, representativeness, availability and anchoring can cause errors in judgement that have real world consequences. Then look at how cognitive biases, can affect how people understand their own safety. Introduction: Thinking about risks is something we do everyday, and it tends to be something we want to avoid. However, the risk is not the event itself but is the likelihood of that event occurring.