Theories Of Erikson's Stage Of Development

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In his theory, Erikson does not elaborate on the experiences that would be necessary to complete each stage of development successfully. There is also no clarity on how a person advances from one stage to the next. Exact methods for resolving conflicts and progressing to the next stage are therefore not described or cited.
The theory structure does not consider cultural differences that could affect the time during which an individual is in one particular stage. Potty training, for example, depending on the culture of the individual, can begin at a different stage.
“I came to psychology from art, which may explain, if not justify, the fact that at times the reader will find me painting contexts and backgrounds where he would rather have me
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Children who receive responsive care are able to develop the psychological quality of hope and those that do not, will become apprehensive and suspicious around people” (Sharkey, 1997).
Montessori: “The spiritual embryo, therefore, needs the protection of an environment rich in nourishment and love and a concentrated relationship with his parents to ensure nothing comes to harm it. Caregivers should take special care of the psychic life of a newborn child, for if his environment is neglected, the psychic life of the child will be in constant danger” (Montessori, 1967).
PUNISHMENT
Erikson: According to Andrea, 2012, Erikson believes that when children experiment they should not be punished for trying something that may turn out differently than the teacher planned.
Montessori: Montessori considered punishment as the desk of the soul, which aims to enslave a child’s spirit and is better suited to provoke than to prevent deformities (Montessori, 1972).
INTEREST
Erikson: “The teacher should find out what students are interested in and create projects that incorporate their area of interest” (Santrock,
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He says this will exhibit teacher appreciation for the areas of interest of the students as well as confidence in their ability (Andrea, 2012).
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Montessori: During her observation, Montessori recalls a day when the teacher was slightly late and upon her arrival, she found that children removing objects to work with them. She says that children could choose their own work according to their own preferences and that is how the principle of free choice was thus added to that of repetition of the exercise. The free choices made by the children enabled her to observe children’s psychic needs and tendencies (Montessori, 1972).
Differences:
ENCOURAGING, FANTASY AND DISCIPLINE
Erikson: “If parents are encouraging, but consistent in discipline, children will learn to accept without guilt that certain things are not allowed but, at the same time, will not feel shame when using their imagination and engaging in make-believe role- plays. However, if parents are not encouraging or consistent in discipline, children may develop a sense of guilt and may come to believe that it is wrong to be independent” (Andrea, 2012). Furthermore, according to Boeree, 2006, Erikson suggests that adults should accept and encourage fantasy and curiosity and imagination. This is a time for play, not for formal education. The child is now capable, as never before, of imagining

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