Neorealism likely to emphasize capabilities more than intentions, because the uncertainties make state pay attention to capabilities. Kransner, the neorealist claimed that neoliberalist are over emphasizing intention and underemphasizing distribution of capabilities. Conflictingly, Keohane stated that the relative gains of other states is significantly influenced by perceptions of intentions of such are states. Sixth, is the concept of ‘Institutions and regimes’. Neoliberalist and neorealist both recognized that international regimes and institutions are overabundance.
Cultural relativism has a variety of definitions, but the main idea is that a universal code of ethics does not exist--it varies culture to culture. Rachel’s examines cultural relativism in “The Challenge of Cultural Relativism” and argues that there are commonalities of ethics throughout every culture. Rachels sections off his argument to better explain what they believe. In this piece, they argue that cultural relativism is not a proper theory. They argue that it has many major flaws, but they acknowledge that parts of theory have some truth to it.
As to the cultural thought, culture may be a complicated issue in some fields like sociology, anthropology and currently become a hot topic in management. A handful of contributions are devoted during this space by some authors, like Hofstede (1997), Hall (1976, referred by Richardson and Smith, 2007 cited by he & Liu, 2010), Golbe (2004). It is not a debate to mention that Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture theory may be a dominant theory. Despite the fact that lots of individuals call into question Hofstede’s theory and his knowledge are out of time (Holden, 2002, p20 cited by he & Liu, 2010), however, the info of dimensions of national culture is not a definite quantity however relative values. At least, Hofstede’s dimensions of national
Lewis touched upon the core of dualistic, non-antagonistic development and his analysis of the interactions between the two sectors provides a useful framework for understanding and development planning (Premdas and Cyr, 1991). Premdas and St. Cyr (1991) also highlight the intrinsic (theoretical) and empirical (evidence-based) weaknesses of the model. They say that the model is “a gross over simplification of the situation in developing countries”. They argue that there are other significant sectors that can be looked at rather than only the "traditional" and "modern" sectors. For e.g.
For instance, according to Dr Duane Champagne discusses that the global market and technology are mainly methods of assimilation and can be an obstacle to cultural sovereignty. Furthermore, Champagne suggested that the American government can contradict with one 's cultural values and norms and that can create challenges in attaining cultural sovereignty. His definition of cultural sovereignty is the right for a Native community to decide their own policies, decisions and their visions. It is also the decision on whether to adopt to or reject to new cultural ways and to promote social changes according to cultural norms and world perspective. Mr Deloria warns us against thinking that no government sovereignty have no limitations.
Compatibility is the ‘degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters’. The potential adopters will refuse to adopt an innovation, if the innovation is not compatible with the values and norms of a social system. The IDT model resembles the TAM, which stresses that behavioural intention to adopt a new technology is due to psychological and social influences of the individual (Davis, 1989). Some researchers indicated that the constructs employed in the TAM are fundamentally a subset of the perceived innovation characteristics and, if integrated, could provide an even stronger model than either model alone. For
Liberalism developed in the 1970s as some scholars began arguing that realism was outdated. The increase in globalization, the expeditious rise in communications technology, and the increase in international trade meant that states could no longer rely on simple power politics to decide matters. Jehangir (2012) states liberalism can be crudely defined as the “freedom for the individual” as it believes that humans are good natured beings. Liberalism’s core ideals stress individualism, human rights, universality, freedom from authority, right to be treated equally under the protection of law and duty to respect and treat others as “ethical subjects” as well as freedom for social action. Rob (2008), argues that although the UN may not be effective militarily, it is good at providing humanitarian aid, which would seem to fit the liberal definition of an organization that provides for the people.
Culturally inappropriate frameworks of research may lead not to just misleading conclusions but also counterproductive to what the research is supposed to achieve. Four aspects of using multicultural paradigms are noted below as suggested by (Gee and Handford 2012). The first important proposed principle is to be culturally conscious, specifically to be multicultural in the selection and application of theory and methods. This basically means that the researcher will stress cultural pluralism anddiversity and oppose cultural imperialism. In analysing the discourse of any culture, the researcher must not be contended with a cultural singular lens but can also draw from other diverse cultural resources.
A more suitable term here, would be comparative method. Since the mid of the twentieth century an increasing worldwide interest has been shown in the development of comparative policy studies. Scott makes the point that a study of the nature of law is too restricted if carried out solely within a single frame of reference, e.g. that of the typical Western adherence to the doctrine of subjective rights – in particular property rights. He opines that this aspect of a comparative study of laws enables jurists and states like to be better understanding foreign practice of law.
“The MRTP Act has become obsolete in certain areas in the light of international economic developments relating to competition laws. We need to shift our focus from curbing monopolies to promoting competition. The Government has decided to appoint a committee to examine this range of issues and propose a modern competition law suitable for our conditions.” The Raghavan Committee was constituted to recommend a suitable legislative framework relating to competition law for the country. It was felt that although the MRTP Act seemingly had provisions regulating anti-competitive practices, in comparison with competition laws of many countries it was inadequate for promoting competition in the market trade and for reducing, if not eliminating, anticompetitive practices in the country’s domestic and international trade. One of the biggest failings of the MRTP Act was the inadequacy of MRTP Act to provide adequate remedy to complainants.