Cultural Dimensions Of Culture Essay

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Defining culture has been a huge challenge for researchers and writers. Culture has been defined in different ways, but none of them have been completely accurate. (Soares, Farhangmehr and Sho-ham, 2007: p. 277). Hofstede, Hofstede and Minkov (2010: p. 6) define culture as “a collective phenomenon”. They state that culture is something that is learned, not inherent. It is learned from the social environment rather than from heritage. Nonetheless, in their book, they present Pierre Bourdieu’s meaning of culture as follows “culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another” (Hofstede et al, 2010: p. 6).
In 1980, Geert Hofstede introduced in his book Culture’s consequences
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It brings a better understanding of the meanings of each dimension and its connection to the importance and contribution on international marketing studies. But, are these dimensions the most appropriate ones for marketing studies? McSweeney (2002: p. 90) claims that Hofstede’s main research on national culture has failed to clearly acknowledge relevant errors or weaknesses in his research. Imm, Lee & Soutar (2007: p. 167) on the other hand, criticized Hofstede's framework of being grounded on empirical research rather than on a theoretical perspective. Jackson (2001) argues in previous research that Hofstede’s individualism dimension is being oversimplified. He recom-mends the egalitarian dimension introduced by Schwartz to be more relevant in analysing the ethi-cal attributions in countries described as more individualistic (Imm et al, 2007: p. 166; after Jack-son, 2001). For Siegel, Licht and Schwartz (2011: p. 1), egalitarianism influences international investment progress. To this end, they assert that a society's cultural orientation toward egalitarian-ism is shaped through flexibility for use of political power, including the desire to protect less powerful actors in the international market
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