Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory

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“Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour (for example, individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, Confucian dynamism, and masculinity/femininity).”
By Tammy Moilanen (IB1) Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory was created by renowned social psychologist, Geert Hofstede who is known for his research on cross cultural communication research and organisations. The Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory (HCDT) explains the impact on an individual’s value as a result of the society’s culture as well as the impact of the values on ones behaviour. The formation of the HCDT was developed from his pioneering research on IBM employees from 40 different countries about their work related attitudes and values (Hofstede, 1984). This essay will specifically examine two cultural dimensions; individualism-collectivism and masculinity-femininity.
Hofstede’s original model was created as a result of a factor analysis of the world-wide survey which examined the work-related attitudes and employee values by IBM employees, but has now been refined due to an increase in data obtained to 72 countries (Hofstede, 2001). Initially the model proposed four dimensions which included:
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The individualism-collectivism dimension is defined as “the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups” (Hofstede, 1994, p. 6). Individualistic cultures more commonly include western cultures such as North American countries, western European countries (e.g. UK and Germany) and Australia while collectivist cultures often consist of Asian countries (e.g. Japan and China). Without fail, it is crucial to keep in mind that there are individuals with collectivist values present in individualistic cultures, just as there is a significant amount of individualists in collectivist
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