Mandarin, based on Beijing dialect, simultaneously assimilated abundant Northern spoken forms of language elements, is the sole national language and official language in mainland China, which possess a prestigious and absolutely powerful status in local speech community. Partly for this ground it is inevitable that the amounts and frequency of loanwords used are limited. Nevertheless, a certain number of loanwords exists in particular conversations among particular participants about particular topics. The frequent loanwords employed by Chinese are English, Japanese and Korean. Considering manifold expansion reasons for English words and Japanese, Korean words, it can be concluded that motivations for picking loanwords are different as well.
CHAPTER 1 Concept of culture and civilization Meaning of Culture : Although it is Difficult to give any exact defination of culture , but it is very easy to understand the concept of Culture. examples of culture can be seen every where around you. you intuitively know that their are certain attitudes, feelings and ideas that exist when you go to a certain place. like in corp-orate Culture, office might be formal or casual in design, employes may be encouraged to dress casually to encourage feeling of equality, comfort and for productivity, management might show caring and personable attitude by sending gifts and cards to employees on key dates in their lives and festivals etc.right from throwing
Westerners may find these questions invasive. In Western societies, questions like this would not be asked; simply saying “hello, how are you?” suffices. There is no distinction between formal and informal greetings in China, however, in Western societies, it is polite to shake hands in formal situations. Etiquette is another dissimilarity. In China, knives and forks aren’t popular, chopsticks are used and bowls are picked up off the table.
The relationship between written form and spoken form in Chinese is relatively complicated because Chinese characters are created by various principles. There are four major principles for Chinese characters construction, including pictographs, ideographs, logical aggregates and phonetic complexes (Lu, 2006). Among these principles, phonetic complexes comprise most of the Chinese characters which account for over 80 percent of the character construction by combining the meaning of one character and the pronunciation of another character (Tsao &Wang, 1983). Many meaning components in Chinese characters have tangible meanings and provide great aids to learners. For instance, the semantic part of the character 洋 reminds readers of its watery association for the meaning of ocean and its phonetic part (羊) indicates its pronunciation (joeng4).
Nowadays, intercultural classrooms are common in China and in English speaking countries. With large numbers of Chinese immigrating into western countries and westerners working and studying in China, there are more exchanges of teachers and students between China and western or English speaking countries (Zhao, 2007). The findings of Wu, et.al, (2015) revealed that international students deal with academic challenges, social isolation, and cultural adjustment. Specifically, academic challenges included communication with professors, classmates, and staff. The classroom discourse in China is more oriented towards a hierarchical face system and assumes more respect from students toward the teacher (Zhao, 2007).
The Chinese family education is a serious problem in China because that causes too many pressure to the most of Chinese children, and to make them being a man who does not like talking with somebody. There are many Chinese parents who would like to use violence to educate their children, and forcing them to study everything without any consideration. All of Chinese parents want their children to be the best in the world, and their children have to accept this kind of expectation everyday that they must stand those pain given by the parents. This kind of phenomenon need to be changed Chinese family education does show many extreme sides to a lot of children. Recently, there are many problems about the education, especially the family education.
CARLA) . Edmund Burke gave the most interesting definition of culture that was later second by Raymond Williams too; he stated culture is “customary differences” which means that it is not created on the basis of similarities but on the basis of differences between two states of thoughts. (What is Culture? Raymond Williams and the Cultural Theory of “Customary Difference”) Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that generally appears in
Culture, like society, could be defined in many different ways. The word “culture” came from the Latin word “cultus” which means “to care”, and from the French word “colere” which means “to till” as in “ground-tilling”. Culture, in the early days, was used to describe lands that are cultivated, grown, and made under controlled conditions. Thus, culture meant the process of making something stable and ready for growth. People in the present time, however, define culture as a compilation of attributes and actions that make up society.
Basically culture is a way of living. However, in sociological parlance, in the words of E.B.Tyler ‘Culture is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.’ Broadly, culture has seven elements. These are things that are common to each and every culture. a. Social Organisation: Social organisation refers to patterns of social interaction.
Basically, culture is diverse and different from one to another. Whether it is in tradition, manner, and communication. Talking about communication, we know that we cannot be separated from communication, wherever we are. Nevertheless, in communicating with others, not all of people can do it effectively. Particularly if the ones that are involved in communication have different culture.