Cultural Factors Involved In Translation

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It is not a secret that translation bridges inter-linguistic communication between people. It also plays a significant cultural and linguistic role in transferring messages between languages. According to J. Munday, translating "between two different written languages involves the translator changing an original written text (source text) in the original verbal language, source language, into a written text (target text) in a different verbal language, the target language"(2008:5). Friedrich Schleiermacher defines translating in two ways: "Either the translator leaves the author in peace, as much as possible, and moves the reader toward him. Or he leaves the reader in peace, as much as possible, and moves the author toward him” (qt in Venuti…show more content…
Hence, the translator will try to achieve the same function in the TT even though, it may appear unfaithful to the ST. The idea of a good translation relates to an idea of fluency in the TT or a way to make the target text acceptable. In line with this, Hatim and Mason explain translating as "an act of communication which attempts to relay, across cultural and linguistic boundaries, another act of communication (which may have been intended for different purposes and different readers/hearers)"(2005:1). That so, the translator needs to study all the linguistic and cultural parts involved in translating in order to achieve a new text from the source language, that the TT readers can understand and relate to in their own cultural context. This agrees with the concept of "dynamic" and "equivalent effect” developed by Eugene Nida. Hatim and Munday (2004: 339) illustrate that this phenomenon happens in translation when the TT needs to reproduce the same effect as it can be found in ST's audience. In other words, there is a search of naturalness in the TT, yet without altering the functionality of the ST. Accordingly, Hatim and Munday (2004:253) define that dynamic equivalence focuses on the TT reader or better explain "translating with naturalness and fluency". So, dynamic equivalence is a form of re-writing the ST and to achieve naturalness in translation, linguistic and rhetorical norms…show more content…
Thus, Nida states "a translation of dynamic equivalence aims at complete naturalness of expression, and tries to relate the receptor to modes of behavior relevant within the context of his own culture" (Venuti 1995:21). The scholar adds "an easy and natural style in translating, despite the extreme difficulty of producing it […] is nevertheless essential to producing in the ultimate receptors a response similar to that of the original receptors" (Nida qt in Venuti 1995:21). In other words, whether there are relevant features of the ST culture that are unknown to the TT readers, these ones are replaced with ones familiar to the TT
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