Synthesis – the basic units of the TL are converted into the final structures of the TL. For instance: On widział, że ona wyszła z kuchni. Using transformational model in the process of translation contributes to translator’s better understanding and awareness of a given text and TL devices. This is because of back-and-forth transformation of the SL sentence. However, this model does not take into consideration the importance of the SL form in the creation of the TL sentence.
Translators have to decide on the importance given to certain cultural aspects and to what extent it is necessary to translate them into the target language. When translating such a text, translators must be aware not only of the purely lexical nature of the text, but also of an equally basic issue of understanding the social, economic, political, and cultural contexts, which lend connotative aspects of multi-meanings to words. Carelessness treatment of these contexts may result in the breaking of peaceful coexistence among people of different
An “ideal” translation requires a natural sounding. According to Belloc (1931, 30), “natural and good translation must... consciously attempt the spirit of the original at the expense of the latter. Now this is much the same as saying that the translator must be of original talent; he must himself create: he must have power of his own, not just offer a one-to-one translation.” Naturalness implies not only the usage of certain words but also grammatical aspects. Peter Newmark says: You have to bear in mind that the level of naturalness of natural usage is grammatical as well as lexical (i.e., the most frequent syntactic structures, idioms and words that are likely to be appropriately found in that kind of stylistic context), and, through appropriate sentence connectives, may extend to the entire text. (Newmark 1987,
Dillon and McKenzie (1998) study and found that the most important factors that should be (passive voice provide more detail)analyzed for better listening are receiver apprehension, willingness to communicate, and readiness to listen, in addition to improving culture competence. To achieve intercultural skills is to avoid generalizations about other cultures, unless they are completely familiar. When listening is perceived to be required, the quality and intensity of a person is mediated by their attitude toward the concepts of listening competence and performance (Imhof & Janusik, 2006). Culture forms an individual’s worldview, and is especially pronounced when intercultural communication is attempted. To take into account the effects of listening, it is important to consider the speaker and the listener.
Their communicative value depends, first and foremost, on their artistic quality and the translator’s primary task is to reproduce this quality in translation. Informative translation is rendering into the target language non-literary texts, the main purpose of which is to convey a certain amount of ideas, to inform the reader. However, if the source text is of some length, its translation can be listed as literary or informative only as an approximation. A literary text may, in fact, include some parts of purely informative character. 22.214.171.124.
One way to solve this problem is to find a new rhythm in local language. Secondly, it is necessary to know the object and subject in the activity of translation aesthetics. The subject of translation aesthetic are translator and reader. At the first step, translator is required to have a special capability of aesthetic. It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text.
Translation: Translation is an act of interpretation of meaning of a text in one language and subsequent production of an equivalent or nearly equivalent text in another language that is able to yield the same message found in the source language. Translation is one of the best means of borrowing ideas from different communities. This was historically done between various civilizations when there were huge literary translations so that there was exchange of literature corresponding to both arts and technology. In recent times there have been long term efforts to create an automated transformation which may partially or totally automate the process of translation. But as translation is a complex task, which has various factors like syntax and semantics that should be preserved while
Berman was the supporter of literalism and foreignness of texts across languages. He believes that any translation proved to be good provided that it manifests the features and foreignness of the original text. Further, he argues that each translation experiences the “trial of the foreign”. Berman (2000) introduced “deforming tendencies” by which translating prevents this trial of foreignness in the target language. He believes that translation is the trial of the foreign in the context of literary translations, which is separated from non-literary translations (2000).
Subtitle translation is a special cross-cultural communication process, and therefore must follow the law of human communication, the best relevance skill and multimodal perspective. When interpreting the film, the subtitle translator analyzes the best correlation between the source language dialogue and the source language audience cognitive context. When the translator predicts the cognitive context of the target language audience in dynamic coding, trying to generate the best relationship with the audience So as to obtain a larger contextual effect with a moderate cognitive effort and eventually realize the communicative intention of the original film and TV producers. Through the analysis of translation examples, it is found that the translators
Pragmatics is one of the crucial components in linguistics. LoCastro (2003) states that pragmatics is the capability of human being in understanding meaning of signals apart from its literal analysis (Peixoto, 2014). From my perspectives, pragmatics need to be learned in terms of politeness where pragmatics does not only focuses on the context but also the cultural background of its learners. Even so, there are some components in pragmatics that do not need to be learned such as deitic expression as they are universal in some languages such as in English Language and Iban Language. According to Yule (2011), pragmatics is “the study of the relationships between linguistics forms and the users of those forms.” Politeness is one of the components