Language is system of shared symbols that communicate with one another it makes us human, helps us interact, it directs our thinking, controls our actions, and gives us a sense of belonging. Norms are the society’s specific rules of right and wrong behavior; they tell us about what we should or should not do. The characteristics of norms are as follows – most are unwritten, they are instrumental, some are explicit while others are implicit, they change over time, most are conditional and norms can be rigid or flexible. The three types of norms are folkways, mores and laws. Folkways- norms that members of a society look upon as not being critical and that may be broken without severe punishment; Mores – norms that society considers very important because they maintain morals and ethics; Laws – norms that are defined and enforced by a political
Members of a linguistic community do not only convey experience, they construct it. They give it meaning through the medium they choose to express themselves with. The way in which people use the spoken, written or visual medium itself creates meanings that are understandable to the group they belong to. In addition to what is being said or written, their are the non-verbal characteristics such as tone, hand gestures and facial expressions. Language is also a system of signs.
Introduction Graphic design; is a creative process which may be called as visual communication through the use of typography, visual art, layouting techniques and others. This involves logo designing, advertisements, publications like magazines, product labels, business cards and web designing. (Liez, 2011). These terms have been chosen because it is the most important or basic things a graphic designer may need in designing. Space In design space is a very useful element it is also very important,designers can take advantage of it, helps in organizing their work without actually separating paragraphs , photos , headings and body paragraphs.
It’s the ability to think about our own thought processes and draw upon our cultural knowledge to understand a different cultural context and solve problems in that situation. It includes whether we can use our cultural knowledge to plan an appropriate strategy, accurately interpret what’s going on in a cross-cultural situation, and check to see if our expectations are accurate or if our mental model of that particular person and/or culture should be revised. Cognitive CQ is the knowledge dimension of cultural intelligence. It refers to the leader’s level of understanding about culture and culture’s role in shaping the way to do business and interact with others across cultural contexts. Your cognitive CQ or knowledge is based upon the degree to which you understand the idea of culture and how it shapes the way you think and behave.
Culture is the way that people and different groups can define themselves in material and non-material ways. The book states that culture is “The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material things that are passed from one generation to the next. () People define culture in different ways. An culture identifying its ideas is the values. Values are aims and the general standard for assessing what is desirable and undesirable.
One’s identity is the personality or the characteristics that distinguish them from other people. Giving them a humanistic view, a sense of freedom, beauty, creativity, and moral responsibility. whereas, one’s cultural identity is more about where someone comes from their background, the language they speak, their religion, what they eat, what they wear, and how they carry themselves giving them a sense of belonging and is part of one’s self-conception and perception. Cultural identity is usually passed down from generation to generations and thus distinguishing one culture from another. I believe that someone can be a member of more than one culture for the sample fact that we are adaptive beings and as we observe and learn more we pick up things that make sense to us and things that we prefer than others.
Cultural identity plays a very vital role in cross cultural communication, people from a particular culture communicate with partners and employees from many different cultures and in this situation every individual strives to keep their cultural and individual identity. According to Gardiner and Kosmitzki, identity is defined as “a person 's self-definition as a separate and distinct individual, including behaviours, beliefs, and attitudes” (Gardiner & Kosmitzki, 2008, p. 154). Also, Ting-Toomey defines identity as a "reflective self-conception or self-image that we each derive from our family, gender, cultural, ethnic, and individual socialization process"( Ting-Toomey, 2005). Both definitions bring out the generalisation of cultural identity
It firstly involves being conscious of one’s own beliefs, prejudices and biases and its effect on them. Secondly it involves realisation that other cultures are socialized differently (Malone et al., 2012). Following awareness, Campinha-Bacote (2002, p.182) views cultural knowledge as “a process of seeking and obtaining a sound educational foundation about diverse cultural and ethnic groups”. The goal is to understand the client’s world view along with their physical, biological and physiological variations (Campinha-Bacote, 1999). In doing so they can ensure to provide the individualised holistic care the client
This will be useful in connecting the relationship among the variables in our study using the Wattpad as medium. The model involves creators, consumers, message, language, and media with arrows and definitions that associates one another. Foulger explained that the model illustrates how people communicate in the media through the process of messages that contains language. The messages are constructed of languages, the interpretation of messages are based on the communicators’ knowledge of the languages used. Thus, the researcher saw that the message that was given by the authors to readers or vice versa will be interpreted based on the consumer’s familiarity of the languages that was constructed in the message given.
It includes many elements such as the physical surrounding, the relationship between the speakers, the past shared experience & current goals & the social events & broader cultural values & expectations (Allington, Daniel & Barbara, Mayor, 2012, p. 6). Any language take into consideration the cultural as well as linguistic knowledge. There is different from community to another community & from community itself in speaking the same language. There is a specific range of speaking English language in different uses associated with particular institutions, relationship, and particular social event. “In order to understand the function and meaning of any spoken exchange, we need to know the values held by the speakers and their expectations about language use in that particular cultural context” (Allington, Daniel & Mayor Barbara, 2012, p.