Professor Geert Hofstede conducted a research on of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. From his studied, we can see that culture has an effect on people not only in the workplace but also in their social life. Hofstede developed the model of national culture which consists of six dimensions. The six dimensions are Power distance, Identity, Gender, Uncertainty, Virtue and Happiness. In this paper, I will show the similarity and difference between my discussion partner and I based on Hofstede’s Theory.
From work life to family life, males and females are expected, and often adhere, to different roles based on their gender. In fact, in the article The Social Construction of Gender by Judith Lorber, she states that in our society “one gender is usually a touchstone, the normal, the dominant, and
Geert Hofstede, a social psychologist and anthropologist, state that our values, patterns of thinking, feeling, and potential acting were learned throughout our lifetime, especially early childhood. Geert Hofstede (1991) defines culture as a collective program of mind which is shared by people within the same social environment. He performed a survey study on employee values across the world through IBM Corporation to identify the effects of social cultures on values of people and the differences of cultures. Hofstede’s work is a major finding on the cross-cultural communication and a very useful tool to understanding different employee behaviours in global business. According to Hofstede theory, there are six cultural dimensions: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation vs. short term orientation, and indulgence.
Each person should be taken as an individual, and the media has started to reflect these views in all areas. Even if cultural manipulation does not exist, there still would be differences between males and females. In conclusion, I would like to reiterate my assertion that the gender roles are a social construct. Gender roles are not innate. It’s almost as if Draco himself established these gender roles, and death was the penalty for opposing his law.
In such a culture, women are encouraged to work and take care of the family at the same time. In feminine society, family comes first before work. Therefore, femininity demonstrates passive goal behavior. The examples of feminine culture of countries are Norway, Denmark and
In gender association, there is high level of association to masculinity and femininity. Hence, some women stuck to traditional norms and behaviours associated with women, like staying at home and taking care of the children while the contemporary women have adopted the roles which were only meant for men. (Hofstede,
Tasha Mullings Kellie Riddell Literature 310 March 25, 2018 Both man and woman have been presented with specific roles in which society determined the criteria and the qualifications. There have been certain responsibilities that were traditionally carried out by men only while others were carried out by women. Most of these responsibilities were separated by the monarchy of its domestic range. The same holds true during the Renaissance period as men and women played opposite roles in society. The social expectations, rights, class, and value could not be more different when it came to man versus woman.
Men have instrumental roles, while women have expressive roles. This theory argues that men and women have naturally different roles to play and that they are both needed for the family to run in a smooth fashion. Application – In this context, it is natural for women not to marry in this society and they have sexual freedom. They embrace motherhood strongly and raise families in the maternal side with a solid kindred spirit. This model, in the current context offers an immense amount of strength in the foundation set for the Mosou women.
Our understanding of gender inequalities in society is based on how hegemonic masculinity operates. Subordinate men only exist because they are measured in relation to hegemonic masculinity. Even so, as a group, subordinate men can still access power and privilege by aspiring to hegemonic masculine traits (Messner, 1997). Emphasised femininity implies that individuals are orientated to accommodate the desires and interests of men (Kilduff & Mehra, 1996). Women who possess hegemonic masculine characteristics, such as successful, competitive and physically superior women, are often seen as threats to men, unfeminine and ‘bad’ (Vescio, Schlenker & Lenes, 2010).
Academic and public discourses around the construction of masculinities made them appear as invariant, fixed, static, and normal. However, although masculine dominance is almost always universal, there are multiple forms of masculinities in different cultures and within a given society (2005: 40,43). Neither masculinity nor femininity are monolithic and unchanging categories and which attributes count as masculine or feminine depends on circumstances and is subject to change and struggle. Masculinities are constructed in a field of power and men´s power over women is relatively straightforward. Nonetheless, Hooper (2001: 43) notes that not all men benefit equally from male dominance, nor do all women suffer equally.