Although the ethics and automatic rules that exist are often not the same in all societies, what always remains is the idea that there are certain ways in which all individuals should conduct themselves and that if they do not conduct themselves in the authorised manner by the culture , they will be judged. (Foucault 2005: 179) At this point, we can conclude that a culture of a specific region develops as a result of the influence of history , environment, religion as well as the development of the region. With this knowledge , we cannot progress without understanding that when analysing individual cultures, you must break them down into their individual characteristics and take all of these characteristics into account. This is where one of the most controversial theories of analysis comes into play in the form of ‘cultural relativism’. Cultural relativism asserts the fact that each culture has its own type of coherent understanding (Heintz 2009 : 5.)
He explained that, dividing practices not only have personal impact, but also effect social identity of the subject. In this, people who exhibit different behavior are subjected to different means of objectification, by physically separating f rom the society. These practices are justified using meditation of science [Rabinow, 1984, Page: 8] . 2. Scientific Classification: This is practice that "arises from the modes of inquiry which try to give themselves the status of sciences.
First, we imagine on how we appear to be another person. Secondly, we imagine what judgements people make of us due to our appearances. Lastly, we imagine how people feel about us, based on the judgements made of us. Hence, we often change our behaviour based on how people perceive us. Symbolic interactionism is a sociological perspective on self and society based on the ideas of George H. Mead (1934), Charles H. Cooley (1902) and W. I. Thomas (1931).
Symbolic Interactionism George Mead (1863-1931) George Herbert Mead is one of the key developers of the symbolic interactionism. This is a micro-level perspective based on self and society. It states that human behavior is influenced by meanings and definitions that are created through interactions with others in society. This is the ongoing use of a language and gestures in suspense to how the other will react in a conversation. Within the George Mead’s theory of Mind, Self and Society, he said that the self is made up of 2 components: the “me” represents expectations, attitudes and learnt behaviors of others in society.
Two people coming from two different societies will have different culture. The reason for this is because culture is acquired throughout the person’s life experiences in the social environment in which one grew up. Culture is therefore, learned. Anthropologically, Edward Tylor (1871, as cited by Tharp, 2009) define culture is a “complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society” (p.1). Tharp (2009) further argues that “culture involves three basic human activities: what people think, what people do, and what people make” (p.1).
One’s identity is the personality or the characteristics that distinguish them from other people. Giving them a humanistic view, a sense of freedom, beauty, creativity, and moral responsibility. whereas, one’s cultural identity is more about where someone comes from their background, the language they speak, their religion, what they eat, what they wear, and how they carry themselves giving them a sense of belonging and is part of one’s self-conception and perception. Cultural identity is usually passed down from generation to generations and thus distinguishing one culture from another. I believe that someone can be a member of more than one culture for the sample fact that we are adaptive beings and as we observe and learn more we pick up things that make sense to us and things that we prefer than others.
It firstly involves being conscious of one’s own beliefs, prejudices and biases and its effect on them. Secondly it involves realisation that other cultures are socialized differently (Malone et al., 2012). Following awareness, Campinha-Bacote (2002, p.182) views cultural knowledge as “a process of seeking and obtaining a sound educational foundation about diverse cultural and ethnic groups”. The goal is to understand the client’s world view along with their physical, biological and physiological variations (Campinha-Bacote, 1999). In doing so they can ensure to provide the individualised holistic care the client
Introduction Views of ethnicity and ethnic boundaries in the sociological literature can be broadly divided into two categories. On the one hand, scholars like Weber ( 1968) focus on the essential characteristics of ethnicity and a set of subjective “beliefs,” collective understandings of a common ancestry and shared culture (385, 389). On the other hand, another category of ethnic boundaries derive from the work of social anthropologists such as Fredrik Barth (1969) who theorizes that ethnic divisions are about maintaining boundaries irrespective of cultural differences. The variability in the affirmation of ethnic identity may be dependent upon social settings or situations and relevant to an actor’s perception of that situation.
Through what processes that space or community has been created over a period of time. These are just some of the whole lot of questions which are necessary in the setting and placement of a space. I will choose culture as my area of study, as it is a very important and strong aspect that affects a society. Culture is an instrument of adaptation that helps to favourly adjust to the adversities of environment. No one lives in isolation, there is a group of people who shares the basic conditions of life and forms the community.
Cultural Beliefs are the beliefs of people based on their culture which is an integrated pattern of human behaviour that includes language, religion, thoughts and actions. And these cultural beliefs of people influence the way they live their lives from how they go about their daily activities, like wearing clothes or eating a meal, to how they make their own opinions on a given situation. Moreover, cultural beliefs of a person can differ depending on where they were born or where they live, and these beliefs do not have real or actual pieces of evidence to always prove them right, but, yet, the people surmise in them because they grew up with these beliefs or because they have strong faith in them. Although cultural beliefs are important to preserve the traditional practices of a community, it can also prevent the development of the community from modernising and thus may cause harm to the society. Global Perspective In Mozambique, Africa, the people consider their cultural beliefs very important and follow them with pride and honour.