The term culture is defined by many authors & scholars based on their own concepts in more than one way. For example, many identify culture by discussing how culture has been sculpted in numerous studies as ideologies, articulate sets of beliefs, uncomplicated assumptions, and common sets of core values, key understandings, and trust. Others suggest that culture includes clearer, observable cultural
1.0 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study Culture consists of the overarching values, motives and moral ethical rules and meanings that are part of the system (Harris, 1999). Culture is the whole way of life, material and non-material of human society (Shorter, 1998). People think that culture as fine and performing arts, to dance, music, theatre and the means of disseminating arts and communication industry (Souza, 1993). One should imagine culture as being self contained, super organic reality with forces and purposes of its own (Geertz, 1973). Westerners used to think that their culture was a unitary phenomenon and that their western culture was perfect and most developed but 20th century proved them wrong (Shorter, 1998).
“Recent thinking in anthropology defines material culture as an ‘event’ or ‘effect’ that emerges from the performance of material things, bodies and spaces” (Kim 2017:194). Material culture shapes the way that we live today and has a huge role in our social lives. This essay will explore what material culture is, how is can be used, and how it can form and identify identities and culture. Material culture helps us understand our social life by looking at physical evidence to determine certain cultural and identity traits of individuals or groups of people in the past and present in order to interpret our own lives. What is Material Culture?
These shared patterns distinguish one from another group and also identify the members of a culture group”(CARLA’s definition). Culture can be defined by how the members of particular group interpret, use and perceive the artifacts, tools, or other tangible cultural elements. In modernized societies, it is not the material objects or tangible aspects of human societies that distinguishes one from another, but what do are its beliefs, core values, interpretations and perspectives. (What is Culture? CARLA) .
However, for the Callatian (Blanco, 2013), it is a sign of respect as the person’s spirit will dwell within them. Therefore, different cultures with result in different moral codes. In that case, people should see matters from many aspects instead of having a general truth as the standard. A second reason why cultural relativism has a more logical way of reasoning is because it teaches us to keep in an open mind. This can be seen from the fact that people should respect and tolerate other’s culture since there is no universal truth that holds for all people.
Culture, like society, could be defined in many different ways. The word “culture” came from the Latin word “cultus” which means “to care”, and from the French word “colere” which means “to till” as in “ground-tilling”. Culture, in the early days, was used to describe lands that are cultivated, grown, and made under controlled conditions. Thus, culture meant the process of making something stable and ready for growth. People in the present time, however, define culture as a compilation of attributes and actions that make up society.
Culture is the way that people and different groups can define themselves in material and non-material ways. The book states that culture is “The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material things that are passed from one generation to the next. () People define culture in different ways. An culture identifying its ideas is the values. Values are aims and the general standard for assessing what is desirable and undesirable.
Throughout different countries there are different cultures, but do we actually know the definition of culture? Mifflin states that culture is “the total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action” (Mifflin, 2005), meaning that a group of people come together with a total amount of ideas and traditions which are shared among them. Therefore, it links to humanity because if humans didn’t had any ideas, beliefs, morals, custom etc. there wouldn’t be no such thing as culture since it is everything that makes a person an entire way of living. The sociology text book states that “culture is both our link to the past and our guide to the future.” (John, 2010) Culture also have some common
Having figured out how organizations need to consider culture as a critical part of their method for conveying on the web, I will in this area give a depiction of what portrays culture, and how it impacts online communication. Contingent upon one's point of view, culture can be seen from various perspectives. Nonetheless, the most normal observation, and the most pertinent for this study, is that it portrays an arrangement of understood standards and qualities to which a substantial gathering of individuals in a group subscribe. As it were, culture is characterized as a complex casing of reference that comprises of examples of conventions, convictions, values, standards, images, and implications that are imparted to fluctuating degrees by collaborating individuals from a group (Ting-Toomey, 1999: 10). It is essential to highlight that culture is not something we are conceived with; rather, it is something we learn.
: This is one the main points of cultural relativism. Cultural relativism considers cultures and their social codes different and thus forbids one to criticise. This prevents us from criticizing even the less tolerable practices like slavery , female infanticide, or any such practices. In a way cultural relativism provides immunity to such intolerable practices. 2) The legitimacy or validity of any action could be measured by consulting the standards of our society.