Gender identity is a product of social construction and, at the same time is one of the key factors that mediate the behavioral activity and the installation of the individual in the context of interpersonal relationships. In terms of socio-constructivist approach, social reality is both objective and subjective. It is objective because it is independent of the individual and is subjective because the individual is constantly creating them. Within this approach, gender is understood as an organized model of social relations between men and women, the constructed basic institutions of society. The theory of the social construction of gender is based on two principles.
Gender is a socially constructed definition of what women and men are. It is different to the term ‘sex’. Sex refers to the biological characteristics of a woman and a man. What is masculine and feminine, for males and females, can vary depending on their cultural background. This means that the society’s expectations confirm the behavioural, psychological and physical qualities that are related to the particular gender.
On the other hand, it will be explored how the discourse on gender relies on social norms outside of the institutionalised settings, in correlation with everyday encounters. Thus, it should be explained how doing gender regulates individuals, and how the same individuals proliferate gendered labour market. The gender division of labour Doing gender is 'a complex of socially guided perceptual, interactional, and micropolitical activities ', legitimising assumptions under which our society operates; namely, the irreconcilable differences between masculine and feminine 'essential natures ' (West and Zimmerman, 1987, p. 126). As Kessler and McKenna (1978) observe, this process of manifesting and affirming one 's membership in a sex category is part of everyday encounters and social relations rather than a projection
In a third and final point, we’ll consider that both gender studies and feminism should be studied separately because gender studies goes further and takes into account sexual characteristics and oppression in general rather than only social oppression towards a biological sex, being women. Gender is something different from social movements. Indeed, in general, gender studies bring to a reflexion on what is being a male and what is being a female according to time and places. The main goal of these studies is to observe how a sex is supposed to reproduce a common thinking and acting according to its societal past. According to Joan Scott, one of the main and first theorists of gender studies: "In grammar, gender is understood to be a way of classifying phenomena, a socially agreed upon system of distinctions rather than an objective description of inherent traits.
However, in postmodern fictions there is other attempting to define the concept of gender identity in light of the psychological perception. Carter’s postmodern feminist assumption emphasizes the role of the psychological aspects in forming individual’s gender identity. For example, in School of Sympathy (1948) Nancy Roberts defines identity as, “who we think we are who we tell our-selves we are or ought to be” (p. 19). She suggests that gender identity is a sense that we try to form. Nevertheless, she, in clarifying this definition, also highlights the impact of some norms, which can affect this feeling: “To some extent this identity is usually based on race, class, ethnicity gender and sexual orientation” (p. 19).
Judith Butler is an American philosopher and feminist who in her book Gender Trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity, explore the idea whether we are assigned our gender or do we perform it based on what values we have learnt. She seeks to radically reconceptualize, challenge and help alter our ideas on how we understand gender and sex. She starts off by saying that existing feminist movement are limited in how they define gender. She says that this definition is outdated but still reflected by the world’s treatment of gender as a set of binary categories, this means that when we are born we are distinctively placed into one of the two categories i.e. male of female and these categories define how we behave.
Themes in Literature - Gender roles Gender roles are norms created by society. Our gender is given to us when born, either you are a girl or a boy, decided by how our body looks like. A girl is given norms to follow by society at a young age. A girl should usually be passive, nurturing and subordination, while those born male are supposed to be strong, aggressive and dominant. This paper will discuss how the genders are viewed and perceived in different literary periods.
Today’s society still has a main set of ideas on how men and women are expected to dress, behave, and present themselves solely based on their gender. Gender role expectations can vary from each society, ethnic group, and culture. Gender based stereotypes are widely accepted judgments or biases about a person or group, but these stereotypes are typically exaggerated and not always accurate. Gender based stereotypes can cause sexism, which is defined as “prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex.” (Oxford Dictionary). Although gender roles are changing for the better, they still exist in today’s world and affect our society’s perspective on gender based personality traits, domestic behaviors and
‘Intersectionality’ has two major focal points which are identity and difference, and inequality and oppression. The scholars Brah and Phoenix (2004) understand ‘intersectionality’ as an interconnection of a multiple axis of differentiation found when observing at categories’ of identity. They further extend the definition by adding that social analysis’s should look at a specific historical context. Taking the analyses of ‘gender’ into consideration one can see how historically the gender binary found in society has changed and developed. Society at large seems to categorise on the basis of biological
(p.91) Although the nation was previously known for the mistreatment of women, Thailand is an increasingly progressive nation when it comes to gender roles. In 1997, there was a new constitution that was written that granted equality for both men and women. (Romanow, p.44) Women have jobs in politics, medicine, science, and engineering. Depending on