Because it depends on post-structural theory, and the theory of exile offers a valuable model for postcolonial criticism. His theory of exile enlivens in all of his works from his earliest literary criticism to his later theoretical texts. By exile, Said mentions to the experience of peoples who have displaced from their homes for political conditions and to the experience of knowledgeable homelessness that a critic has to be free of the restrictions of cultural and ideological. Though, he claims that exile is a painful experience that does not lead to perfection but to a greater awareness of the possibility of human
Men in the Sun By Ghassan Kanafani “My political position springs from my being a novelist. In so far as I am concerned, politics and the novel are an indivisible case and I can categorically state that I became politically committed because I am a novelist, not the opposite” - Ghassan Kanafani. Ghassan Kanafani was born on the 9th of April, 1936 in Acre on the northern coast of Palestine. He belonged to a middle class family. In 1948, the Deir Yassin massacre occurred, and Ghassan’s family was forced to flee to a Syrian mountain, then move to the refugee camps located in Damascus.
Therefore, writings after 1967 were characterized by self-identification. Writers seek to assert their identity and fight assimilation. For instance, Sam Hamod a Lebanese American writer portrays in his poem “Dying with the Wrong Name” how immigrants entering through Ellis Island were forced to “Amercanize” their names. He highlights that assimilation costs Arabs their identity and culture. It makes Arabs lead a fragmented life.
In addition, it introduces the benefit of linking DDR program and transitional justice in brief. 2.1 Literature Review War shatters the stability of the societies and split up people in the armed groups. It also affects the lives of people in various ways including women and children. It simply breaks the rule of law and order in the society. Conflict actors violate the human rights and international law to achieve their goals through unlawful killings, torture, arbitrary arrest and sexual violence.
As one of the foundational texts in the field of postcolonial writing, Barbara Harlow’s Resistance Literature introduced new ground in western literary studies by not only calling for a wider, more serious assertion of previously ignored Third World texts, but also for demanding that critics abandon their New Critical mantle of neutrality and objectivity in favor of a methodology that takes the social, political, and historical circumstances of these works into account. Marlow argues that the term of "Resistance" was used for the first time, with reference to literature, by the Palestine writer and critic Ghassan Kanafani in his study literature of resistance in occupied Palestine 1948-1966. The critic divides resistance literature into two categories: under occupation or in
Resistance starts from 1939 to 1941 during the second world war in Europe, when the underground movement appeared in France to fight the German. It is clear that Resistance literature uses the language of empire to refuse its dominant ideologies. Where domination, power, or oppression is present, resistance takes place. Race and gender are important to understand the nature of resistance. Harvey compared a fire accident happened in Hamlet with a similar fire accident in New York where a labor resistance by 100,000 people.
The latter concept is influential in the selection of themes that must be relevant to the social system if the work of literature is to be noticed at all. In its formative phase a poetics reflects both the devices and the “functional view” of the literary production dominant in a literary system when its poetics was first codified. Once a poetics is codified, it exerts a tremendous system-conforming influence on the further development of a literary system. (Lefevere, 2010: 26) He also thinks that the functional component of poetics is obviously closely tied to ideological influences from outside the sphere of the poetics, and generated by ideological forces in the environment of the literary system (Ibid:
The purpose of writing this paper is to explore how caste hierarchy and oppression has been depicted in the works of Premchand and to critically analyse whether his two stories Kafan and Sadgati fall within the genre of ‘Dalit literature’. The paper deals extensively with the Dalit psyche and also the politics revolving around the concepts of purity and untouchability through the Dalit body. The significance of the paper lies in the fact that it enables one to analyse the representation of Dalits in literature by including the criticism of various writers against Premchand and decide for oneself how appropriate and extensive that representation has been. Keywords: Dalit, death, hierarchy, women, representation, revolution Premchand (1880-1936) was writing during the first half of the twentieth century when India was facing colonialism, imperialism and National Liberation Movement. He wrote on a variety of subjects touching almost each and
It needs to inspire people to go out and solve social problems addressed in the play and according to Marx alienation is necessary before the desire for change can arise 2 . Although it is easy to assume that the aim of Brecht’s play is only to crudely criticise “bourgeois opera in form and content” and bluntly critique the “injustices of capitalism”3 , the message goes much deeper than that. It all ties in with the notion of freedom. The social and personal freedoms portrayed in Baobabia according to my current knowledge include, but are not limited to
Archetypal criticism is also concerned with how patterns of culture, beliefs, tradition, and inborn images affects literature. It renders the idea that certain symbols represent the same ideas no matter the place or time. Writers use symbols in their works in order to strike readers’ unconscious. This kind of symbols recur often enough in literature to be recognizable as an element of one’s literary experience as a whole. Archetypal criticism also deals with symbolism of nature and the cosmos.